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On effective human robot interaction based on recognition and association

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Faces play a magnificent role in human robot interaction, as they do in our daily life. The inherent ability of the human mind facilitates us to recognize a person by exploiting various challenges such as bad illumination, occlusions, pose variation etc. which are involved in face recognition. But it is a very complex task in nature to identify a human face by humanoid robots. The recent literatures on face biometric recognition are extremely rich in its application on structured environment for solving human identification problem. But the application of face biometric on mobile robotics is limited for its inability to produce accurate identification in uneven circumstances. The existing face recognition problem has been tackled with our proposed component based fragmented face recognition framework. The proposed framework uses only a subset of the full face such as eyes, nose and mouth to recognize a person. It's less searching cost, encouraging accuracy and ability to handle various challenges of face recognition offers its applicability on humanoid robots. The second problem in face recognition is the face spoofing, in which a face recognition system is not able to distinguish between a person and an imposter (photo/video of the genuine user). The problem will become more detrimental when robots are used as an authenticator. A depth analysis method has been investigated in our research work to test the liveness of imposters to discriminate them from the legitimate users. The implication of the previous earned techniques has been used with respect to criminal identification with NAO robot. An eyewitness can interact with NAO through a user interface. NAO asks several questions about the suspect, such as age, height, her/his facial shape and size etc., and then making a guess about her/his face.


Oxford Handbook on AI Ethics Book Chapter on Race and Gender

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

From massive face-recognition-based surveillance and machine-learning-based decision systems predicting crime recidivism rates, to the move towards automated health diagnostic systems, artificial intelligence (AI) is being used in scenarios that have serious consequences in people's lives. However, this rapid permeation of AI into society has not been accompanied by a thorough investigation of the sociopolitical issues that cause certain groups of people to be harmed rather than advantaged by it. For instance, recent studies have shown that commercial face recognition systems have much higher error rates for dark skinned women while having minimal errors on light skinned men. A 2016 ProPublica investigation uncovered that machine learning based tools that assess crime recidivism rates in the US are biased against African Americans. Other studies show that natural language processing tools trained on newspapers exhibit societal biases (e.g. finishing the analogy "Man is to computer programmer as woman is to X" by homemaker). At the same time, books such as Weapons of Math Destruction and Automated Inequality detail how people in lower socioeconomic classes in the US are subjected to more automated decision making tools than those who are in the upper class. Thus, these tools are most often used on people towards whom they exhibit the most bias. While many technical solutions have been proposed to alleviate bias in machine learning systems, we have to take a holistic and multifaceted approach. This includes standardization bodies determining what types of systems can be used in which scenarios, making sure that automated decision tools are created by people from diverse backgrounds, and understanding the historical and political factors that disadvantage certain groups who are subjected to these tools.


Making face recognition less biased doesn't make it less scary

MIT Technology Review

In the past few years, there's been a dramatic rise in the adoption of face recognition, detection, and analysis technology. You're probably most familiar with recognition systems, like Facebook's photo-tagging recommender and Apple's FaceID, which can identify specific individuals. Detection systems, on the other hand, determine whether a face is present at all; and analysis systems try to identify aspects like gender and race. All of these systems are now being used for a variety of purposes, from hiring and retail to security and surveillance. Many people believe that such systems are both highly accurate and impartial.


Amazon's facial recognition software mistakes women as men and darker-skinned women as men

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Amazon's controversial facial recognition software, Rekognition, is facing renewed criticism. A new study from the MIT Media Lab found that Rekognition may have gender and racial biases. In particular, the software performed worse when identifying gender for females and darker-skinned females. Amazon's controversial facial recognition software, Rekognition, is facing renewed criticism. When the software was presented with a number of female faces, it incorrectly labeled 19 percent of them as male.


Datasheets for Datasets

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Currently there is no standard way to identify how a dataset was created, and what characteristics, motivations, and potential skews it represents. To begin to address this issue, we propose the concept of a datasheet for datasets, a short document to accompany public datasets, commercial APIs, and pretrained models. The goal of this proposal is to enable better communication between dataset creators and users, and help the AI community move toward greater transparency and accountability. By analogy, in computer hardware, it has become industry standard to accompany everything from the simplest components (e.g., resistors), to the most complex microprocessor chips, with datasheets detailing standard operating characteristics, test results, recommended usage, and other information. We outline some of the questions a datasheet for datasets should answer. These questions focus on when, where, and how the training data was gathered, its recommended use cases, and, in the case of human-centric datasets, information regarding the subjects' demographics and consent as applicable. We develop prototypes of datasheets for two well-known datasets: Labeled Faces in The Wild~\cite{lfw} and the Pang \& Lee Polarity Dataset~\cite{polarity}.