Convolutional neural networks are deep artificial neural networks that are used primarily to classify images (e.g. They are algorithms that can identify faces, individuals, street signs, tumors, platypuses and many other aspects of visual data. Convolutional networks perform optical character recognition (OCR) to digitize text and make natural-language processing possible on analog and hand-written documents, where the images are symbols to be transcribed. CNNs can also be applied to sound when it is represented visually as a spectrogram. More recently, convolutional networks have been applied directly to text analytics as well as graph data with graph convolutional networks.
In this paper, we propose doubly convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), which significantly improve the performance of CNNs by further exploring this idea. In stead of allocating a set of convolutional filters that are independently learned, a DCNN maintains groups of filters where filters within each group are translated versions of each other. Practically, a DCNN can be easily implemented by a two-step convolution procedure, which is supported by most modern deep learning libraries. We perform extensive experiments on three image classification benchmarks: CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet, and show that DCNNs consistently outperform other competing architectures. We have also verified that replacing a convolutional layer with a doubly convolutional layer at any depth of a CNN can improve its performance.
Throughout this article, I will discuss some of the more complex aspects of convolutional neural networks and how they related to specific tasks such as object detection and facial recognition. This article is a natural extension to my article titled: Simple Introductions to Neural Networks. I recommend looking at this before tackling the rest of this article if you are not well-versed in the idea and function of convolutional neural networks. Due to the excessive length of the original article, I have decided to leave out several topics related to object detection and facial recognition systems, as well as some of the more esoteric network architectures and practices currently being trialed in the research literature. I will likely discuss these in a future article related more specifically to the application of deep learning for computer vision.
If you're not a Deep Learning expert, chances are that the Coursera Convolutional Neural Networks course kicked your behind. So much information, so many complex theories covered in such a short time! Countless times pausing the lectures, rereading additional material and discussing topics later led us, a group of official mentors, to decide a learner study guide is worth the effort.