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Recent Deep Semi-supervised Learning Approaches and Related Works Artificial Intelligence

The author of this work proposes an overview of the recent semi-supervised learning approaches and related works. Despite the remarkable success of neural networks in various applications, there exist few formidable constraints including the need for a large amount of labeled data. Therefore, semi-supervised learning, which is a learning scheme in which the scarce labels and a larger amount of unlabeled data are utilized to train models (e.g., deep neural networks) is getting more important. Based on the key assumptions of semi-supervised learning, which are the manifold assumption, cluster assumption, and continuity assumption, the work reviews the recent semi-supervised learning approaches. In particular, the methods in regard to using deep neural networks in a semi-supervised learning setting are primarily discussed. In addition, the existing works are first classified based on the underlying idea and explained, and then the holistic approaches that unify the aforementioned ideas are detailed.

An Overview of Deep Semi-Supervised Learning Machine Learning

Deep neural networks demonstrated their ability to provide remarkable performances on a wide range of supervised learning tasks (e.g., image classification) when trained on extensive collections of labeled data (e.g., ImageNet). However, creating such large datasets requires a considerable amount of resources, time, and effort. Such resources may not be available in many practical cases, limiting the adoption and the application of many deep learning methods. In a search for more data-efficient deep learning methods to overcome the need for large annotated datasets, there is a rising research interest in semi-supervised learning and its applications to deep neural networks to reduce the amount of labeled data required, by either developing novel methods or adopting existing semi-supervised learning frameworks for a deep learning setting. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of deep semi-supervised learning, starting with an introduction to the field, followed by a summarization of the dominant semi-supervised approaches in deep learning.

Semi-Supervised Learning of Visual Features by Non-Parametrically Predicting View Assignments with Support Samples Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes a novel method of learning by predicting view assignments with support samples (PAWS). The method trains a model to minimize a consistency loss, which ensures that different views of the same unlabeled instance are assigned similar pseudo-labels. The pseudo-labels are generated non-parametrically, by comparing the representations of the image views to those of a set of randomly sampled labeled images. The distance between the view representations and labeled representations is used to provide a weighting over class labels, which we interpret as a soft pseudo-label. By non-parametrically incorporating labeled samples in this way, PAWS extends the distance-metric loss used in self-supervised methods such as BYOL and SwAV to the semi-supervised setting. Despite the simplicity of the approach, PAWS outperforms other semi-supervised methods across architectures, setting a new state-of-the-art for a ResNet-50 on ImageNet trained with either 10% or 1% of the labels, reaching 75.5% and 66.5% top-1 respectively. PAWS requires 4x to 12x less training than the previous best methods.

FixMatch: Simplifying Semi-Supervised Learning with Consistency and Confidence Machine Learning

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) provides an effective means of leveraging unlabeled data to improve a model's performance. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of a simple combination of two common SSL methods: consistency regularization and pseudo-labeling. Our algorithm, FixMatch, first generates pseudo-labels using the model's predictions on weakly-augmented unlabeled images. For a given image, the pseudo-label is only retained if the model produces a high-confidence prediction. The model is then trained to predict the pseudo-label when fed a strongly-augmented version of the same image. Despite its simplicity, we show that FixMatch achieves state-of-the-art performance across a variety of standard semi-supervised learning benchmarks, including 94.93% accuracy on CIFAR-10 with 250 labels and 88.61% accuracy with 40 -- just 4 labels per class. Since FixMatch bears many similarities to existing SSL methods that achieve worse performance, we carry out an extensive ablation study to tease apart the experimental factors that are most important to FixMatch's success. We make our code available at

MixMatch: A Holistic Approach to Semi-Supervised Learning Machine Learning

Semi-supervised learning has proven to be a powerful paradigm for leveraging unlabeled data to mitigate the reliance on large labeled datasets. In this work, we unify the current dominant approaches for semi-supervised learning to produce a new algorithm, MixMatch, that works by guessing low-entropy labels for data-augmented unlabeled examples and mixing labeled and unlabeled data using MixUp. We show that MixMatch obtains state-of-the-art results by a large margin across many datasets and labeled data amounts. For example, on CIFAR-10 with 250 labels, we reduce error rate by a factor of 4 (from 38% to 11%) and by a factor of 2 on STL-10. We also demonstrate how MixMatch can help achieve a dramatically better accuracy-privacy trade-off for differential privacy. Finally, we perform an ablation study to tease apart which components of MixMatch are most important for its success.