This paper proposes an incremental solution to Fast Subclass Discriminant Analysis (fastSDA). We present an exact and an approximate linear solution, along with an approximate kernelized variant. Extensive experiments on eight image datasets with different incremental batch sizes show the superiority of the proposed approach in terms of training time and accuracy being equal or close to fastSDA solution and outperforming other methods.
Fisher's linear discriminant analysis is a classical method for classification, yet it is limited to capturing linear features only. Kernel discriminant analysis as an extension is known to successfully alleviate the limitation through a nonlinear feature mapping. We study the geometry of nonlinear embeddings in discriminant analysis with polynomial kernels and Gaussian kernel by identifying the population-level discriminant function that depends on the data distribution and the kernel. In order to obtain the discriminant function, we solve a generalized eigenvalue problem with between-class and within-class covariance operators. The polynomial discriminants are shown to capture the class difference through the population moments explicitly. For approximation of the Gaussian discriminant, we use a particular representation of the Gaussian kernel by utilizing the exponential generating function for Hermite polynomials. We also show that the Gaussian discriminant can be approximated using randomized projections of the data. Our results illuminate how the data distribution and the kernel interact in determination of the nonlinear embedding for discrimination, and provide a guideline for choice of the kernel and its parameters.
Quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) is a standard tool for classification due to its simplicity and flexibility. Because the number of its parameters scales quadratically with the number of the variables, QDA is not practical, however, when the dimensionality is relatively large. To address this, we propose a novel procedure named DA-QDA for QDA in analyzing high-dimensional data. Formulated in a simple and coherent framework, DA-QDA aims to directly estimate the key quantities in the Bayes discriminant function including quadratic interactions and a linear index of the variables for classification. Under appropriate sparsity assumptions, we establish consistency results for estimating the interactions and the linear index, and further demonstrate that the misclassification rate of our procedure converges to the optimal Bayes risk, even when the dimensionality is exponentially high with respect to the sample size. An efficient algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is developed for finding interactions, which is much faster than its competitor in the literature. The promising performance of DA-QDA is illustrated via extensive simulation studies and the analysis of four real datasets.
Dimensionality reduction is often needed in many applications due to the high dimensionality of the data involved. In this paper, we first analyze the scatter measures used in the conventional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model and note that the formulation is based on the average-case view. Based on this analysis, we then propose a new dimensionality reduction method called worst-case linear discriminant analysis (WLDA) by defining new between-class and within-class scatter measures. This new model adopts the worst-case view which arguably is more suitable for applications such as classification. When the number of training data points or the number of features is not very large, we relax the optimization problem involved and formulate it as a metric learning problem.