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Health State Estimation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.



Reinforcement Learning in Healthcare: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As a subfield of machine learning, \emph{reinforcement learning} (RL) aims at empowering one's capabilities in behavioural decision making by using interaction experience with the world and an evaluative feedback. Unlike traditional supervised learning methods that usually rely on one-shot, exhaustive and supervised reward signals, RL tackles with sequential decision making problems with sampled, evaluative and delayed feedback simultaneously. Such distinctive features make RL technique a suitable candidate for developing powerful solutions in a variety of healthcare domains, where diagnosing decisions or treatment regimes are usually characterized by a prolonged and sequential procedure. This survey will discuss the broad applications of RL techniques in healthcare domains, in order to provide the research community with systematic understanding of theoretical foundations, enabling methods and techniques, existing challenges, and new insights of this emerging paradigm. By first briefly examining theoretical foundations and key techniques in RL research from efficient and representational directions, we then provide an overview of RL applications in a variety of healthcare domains, ranging from dynamic treatment regimes in chronic diseases and critical care, automated medical diagnosis from both unstructured and structured clinical data, as well as many other control or scheduling domains that have infiltrated many aspects of a healthcare system. Finally, we summarize the challenges and open issues in current research, and point out some potential solutions and directions for future research.


TRACER: A Framework for Facilitating Accurate and Interpretable Analytics for High Stakes Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In high stakes applications such as healthcare and finance analytics, the interpretability of predictive models is required and necessary for domain practitioners to trust the predictions. Traditional machine learning models, e.g., logistic regression (LR), are easy to interpret in nature. However, many of these models aggregate time-series data without considering the temporal correlations and variations. Therefore, their performance cannot match up to recurrent neural network (RNN) based models, which are nonetheless difficult to interpret. In this paper, we propose a general framework TRACER to facilitate accurate and interpretable predictions, with a novel model TITV devised for healthcare analytics and other high stakes applications such as financial investment and risk management. Different from LR and other existing RNN-based models, TITV is designed to capture both the time-invariant and the time-variant feature importance using a feature-wise transformation subnetwork and a self-attention subnetwork, for the feature influence shared over the entire time series and the time-related importance respectively. Healthcare analytics is adopted as a driving use case, and we note that the proposed TRACER is also applicable to other domains, e.g., fintech. We evaluate the accuracy of TRACER extensively in two real-world hospital datasets, and our doctors/clinicians further validate the interpretability of TRACER in both the patient level and the feature level. Besides, TRACER is also validated in a high stakes financial application and a critical temperature forecasting application. The experimental results confirm that TRACER facilitates both accurate and interpretable analytics for high stakes applications.


Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology: Present and Future

#artificialintelligence

For the purpose of this narrative review, we searched PubMed and MEDLINE databases with no date restriction using search terms related to AI and medicine and cardiology subspecialties. Articles were reviewed and selected for inclusion on the basis of relevance. This article highlights that the role of ML in cardiovascular medicine is rapidly emerging, and mounting evidence indicates it will power the new tools that drive the field. Among other uses, AI has been deployed to interpret echocardiograms, to automatically identify heart rhythms from an ECG, to uniquely identify an individual using the ECG as a biometric signal, and to detect the presence of heart disease such as left ventricular dysfunction from the surface ECG.6x6Attia, Z.I., Kapa, S., Lopez-Jimenez, F. et al.