John McCarthy first coined the term "Artificial Intelligence" (AI) in 1956 at the Dartmouth Conference along with four other founding colleagues – Marvin Minsky, Oliver Selfridge, Ray Solomonoff, and Trenchard More. The original definition and concept of AI according to John McCarthy is "Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so preciously described that a machine can be made to simulate it. An attempt will be made to find how to make machines and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves." What it simply means is that AI is a term for "simulated intelligence" in machines. The machines are programmed to mimic the cognitive functions of the human brain.
In September 1955, John McCarthy, a young assistant professor of mathematics at Dartmouth College, boldly proposed that "every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." McCarthy called this new field of study "artificial intelligence," and suggested that a two-month effort by a group of 10 scientists could make significant advances in developing machines that could "use language, form abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves." At the time, scientists optimistically believed we would soon have thinking machines doing any work a human could do. Now, more than six decades later, advances in computer science and robotics have helped us automate many of the tasks that previously required the physical and cognitive labor of humans. But true artificial intelligence, as McCarthy conceived it, continues to elude us.
Artificial intelligence is a trending technology from quite a few years now. You must have heard a lot about it in tech news and blogs. There are various predictions about the future of Artificial intelligence but have you ever been keen to about its initial stages? In contemporary times, AI along with its subsets machine learning and deep learning are ruling the innovations in the software industry market. In fact, the magic of AI is such that 41 percent of consumers are expecting that their life will change with AI in the future.
Ai is everywhere, it has incorporated into every aspect of our life, unknowingly. It changed the way we live by simplifying things we do in our routine, like shopping, traveling, man-machine interaction. AI almost gained control of our actions. It decides what we shop, by showing ads and recommendations while you are shopping, AI trip advisors suggest you a travel destination and the best vacation packages for your budget. AI helping Businesses and financial institutions to serve their customers better with the automated question and answer chatbots. AI also defines our social media feeds, how many of your Facebook friends have not been showing up on your wall, even they active in social media? Because AI knows what and who you are interested in.
This ebook, based on the latest ZDNet / TechRepublic special feature, advises CXOs on how to approach AI and ML initiatives, figure out where the data science team fits in, and what algorithms to buy versus build. It depends who you ask. Back in the 1950s, the fathers of the field Minsky and McCarthy, described artificial intelligence as any task performed by a program or a machine that, if a human carried out the same activity, we would say the human had to apply intelligence to accomplish the task. That obviously is a fairly broad definition, which is why you will sometimes see arguments over whether something is truly AI or not. AI systems will typically demonstrate at least some of the following behaviors associated with human intelligence: planning, learning, reasoning, problem solving, knowledge representation, perception, motion, and manipulation and, to a lesser extent, social intelligence and creativity. AI is ubiquitous today, used to recommend what you should buy next online, to understand what you say to virtual assistants such as Amazon's Alexa and Apple's Siri, to recognise who and what is in a photo, to spot spam, or detect credit card fraud. AI might be a hot topic but you'll still need to justify those projects.