Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) is a reading comprehension dataset, consisting of questions posed by crowdworkers on a set of Wikipedia articles, where the answer to every question is a segment of text, or span, from the corresponding reading passage, or the question might be unanswerable. To do well on SQuAD2.0, SQuAD2.0 is a challenging natural language understanding task for existing models, and we release SQuAD2.0 to the community as the successor to SQuAD1.1. We are optimistic that this new dataset will encourage the development of reading comprehension systems that know what they don't know. SQuAD 1.1, the previous version of the SQuAD dataset, contains 100,000 question-answer pairs on 500 articles.
Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) is a new reading comprehension dataset, consisting of questions posed by crowdworkers on a set of Wikipedia articles, where the answer to every question is a segment of text, or span, from the corresponding reading passage. With 100,000 question-answer pairs on 500 articles, SQuAD is significantly larger than previous reading comprehension datasets. We've built a few resources to help you get started with the dataset. Download a copy of the dataset (distributed under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license): To evaluate your models, we have also made available the evaluation script we will use for official evaluation, along with a sample prediction file that the script will take as input. To run the evaluation, use python evaluate-v1.1.py
First Quora Dataset Release: Question Pairs originally appeared on Quora: the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world. We are excited to announce the first in what we plan to be a series of public dataset releases. Our dataset releases will be oriented around various problems of relevance to Quora and will give researchers in diverse areas such as machine learning, natural language processing, network science, etc. the opportunity to try their hand at some of the challenges that arise in building a scalable online knowledge-sharing platform. Our first dataset is related to the problem of identifying duplicate questions. An important product principle for Quora is that there should be a single question page for each logically distinct question.
We present Memory Augmented Policy Optimization (MAPO), a simple and novel way to leverage a memory buffer of promising trajectories to reduce the variance of policy gradient estimate. MAPO is applicable to deterministic environments with discrete actions, such as structured prediction and combinatorial optimization tasks. We express the expected return objective as a weighted sum of two terms: an expectation over the high-reward trajectories inside the memory buffer, and a separate expectation over trajectories outside the buffer. To make an efficient algorithm of MAPO, we propose: (1) memory weight clipping to accelerate and stabilize training; (2) systematic exploration to discover high-reward trajectories; (3) distributed sampling from inside and outside of the memory buffer to scale up training. MAPO improves the sample efficiency and robustness of policy gradient, especially on tasks with sparse rewards. We evaluate MAPO on weakly supervised program synthesis from natural language (semantic parsing). On the WikiTableQuestions benchmark, we improve the state-of-the-art by 2.6%, achieving an accuracy of 46.3%. On the WikiSQL benchmark, MAPO achieves an accuracy of 74.9% with only weak supervision, outperforming several strong baselines with full supervision. Our source code is available at https://goo.gl/TXBp4e