Environmental monitoring allows authorities to understand the impact of potentially harmful phenomena, such as air pollution, excessive noise, and radiation. Recently, there has been considerable interest in participatory sensing as a paradigm for such large-scale data collection because it is cost-effective and able to capture more fine-grained data than traditional approaches that use stationary sensors scattered in cities. In this approach, ordinary citizens (non-expert contributors) collect environmental data using low-cost mobile devices. However, these participants are generally self-interested actors that have their own goals and make local decisions about when and where to take measurements. This can lead to highly inefficient outcomes, where observations are either taken redundantly or do not provide sufficient information about key areas of interest. To address these challenges, it is necessary to guide and to coordinate participants, so they take measurements when it is most informative. To this end, we develop a computationally-efficient coordination algorithm (adaptive Best-Match) that suggests to users when and where to take measurements. Our algorithm exploits probabilistic knowledge of human mobility patterns, but explicitly considers the uncertainty of these patterns and the potential unwillingness of people to take measurements when requested to do so. In particular, our algorithm uses a local search technique, clustering and random simulations to map participants to measurements that need to be taken in space and time. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on a real-world human mobility and air quality dataset and show that it outperforms the current state of the art by up to 24% in terms of utility gained.
Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.
Rodrigues, Diego O., Santos, Frances A., Filho, Geraldo P. Rocha, Akabane, Ademar T., Cabral, Raquel, Immich, Roger, Junior, Wellington L., Cunha, Felipe D., Guidoni, Daniel L., Silva, Thiago H., Rosário, Denis, Cerqueira, Eduardo, Loureiro, Antonio A. F., Villas, Leandro A.
The growing of cities has resulted in innumerable technical and managerial challenges for public administrators such as energy consumption, pollution, urban mobility and even supervision of private and public spaces in an appropriate way. Urban Computing emerges as a promising paradigm to solve such challenges, through the extraction of knowledge, from a large amount of heterogeneous data existing in urban space. Moreover, Urban Computing correlates urban sensing, data management, and analysis to provide services that have the potential to improve the quality of life of the citizens of large urban centers. Consider this context, this chapter aims to present the fundamentals of Urban Computing and the steps necessary to develop an application in this area. To achieve this goal, the following questions will be investigated, namely: (i) What are the main research problems of Urban Computing?; (ii) What are the technological challenges for the implementation of services in Urban Computing?; (iii) What are the main methodologies used for the development of services in Urban Computing?; and (iv) What are the representative applications in this field?
Geospatial Information (GSI) services are a new kind of technological platform that combine accurate mapping services with real-time user location and context data. GSI can power everything from navigation to social and political engagement. Although many GSI services are already in use, little attention has been paid to the implications of the technology and the privacy concerns that it raises. Restrictive regulation could kill the budding GSI industry in its early stages, but some initial steps should be taken to protect GSI users. This Paper defines GSI, identifies the aspects of the technology that contribute to its innovation potential and privacy risks, and surveys possible regulatory approaches. Finally, it recommends a combination of technological anonymity, data retention limits, and user access as a flexible first step toward industry regulation.