Scientists and researchers have long extolled the extraordinary potential capabilities of universal quantum computers, like simulating physical and natural processes or breaking cryptographic codes in practical time frames. Yet important developments in the technology--the ability to fabricate the necessary number of high-quality qubits (the basic units of quantum information) and gates (elementary operations between qubits)--is most likely still decades away. However, there is a class of quantum devices--ones that currently exist--that could address otherwise intractable problems much sooner than that. These near-term quantum devices, coined Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) by Caltech professor John Preskill, are single-purpose, highly imperfect, and modestly sized. Dr. Anton Toutov is the cofounder and chief science officer of Fuzionaire and holds a PhD in organic chemistry from Caltech.
Just occasionally, Alán Aspuru-Guzik has a movie-star moment, when fans half his age will stop him in the street. "They say, 'Hey, we know who you are'," he laughs. "Then they tell me that they also have a quantum start-up, and would love to talk to me about it." "I don't usually have time to talk, but I'm always happy to give them some tips." That affable approach is not uncommon in the quantum-computing community, says Aspuru-Guzik, who is a computer scientist at the University of Toronto, Canada, and co-founder of quantum-computing company Zapata Computing in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In the near future, quantum computing could change the world. Download the free report to learn about the the quantum computing industry landscape and how close we are to quantum supremacy. Take climate change for example: Because of the complexity of the climate system, seemingly endless data, and growing limitations on today's computing power, no classical computer (like your desktop) can simulate the earth's climate changes with 100% accuracy. Quantum computers, on the other hand, are supercomputers equipped with advanced processing powers. Taking tons of climate variables into account, they could create data-driven models to help forecast weather patterns and prepare for natural disasters. Beyond climate simulations, these advanced computing systems could make ultra-fast calculations on the biggest and most complex datasets -- and the technology is certainly catching media attention. But how exactly does it work? Quantum computers can process massive and complex datasets more efficiently than classical computers. They use the fundamentals of quantum mechanics to speed up the process of solving complex computations.
From the start of computing history, the power of our CPU's is growing exponentially. Henceforth allowing the computer systems to be smaller and more powerful, but this joy ride is about to come to an end. To understand why, first we need to understand the greatest prediction of the 20th century which held on for more than 50 years. Yes, I am talking about the Moore Law, which is named after the Gordon Moore cofounder of Fairchild Semiconductors and CEO of the Intel. The number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit, double about every two years, though the cost of the system is halved.
How many qubits are needed to out-perform conventional computers, how to protect a quantum computer from the effects of decoherence and how to design more than 1000 qubits fault-tolerant large scale quantum computers, these are the three basic questions we want to deal in this article. Qubit technologies, qubit quality, qubit count, qubit connectivity and qubit architectures are the five key areas of quantum computing are discussed. Earlier we have discussed 7 Core Qubit Technologies for Quantum Computing, 7 Key Requirements for Quantum Computing. Spin-orbit Coupling Qubits for Quantum Computing and AI, Quantum Computing Algorithms for Artificial Intelligence, Quantum Computing and Artificial Intelligence, Quantum Computing with Many World Interpretation Scopes and Challenges and Quantum Computer with Superconductivity at Room Temperature. Here, we will focus on practical issues related to designing large-scale quantum computers.