Using an artificial intelligence-based algorithm that uses scattered light data from tissues, researchers from IISER Kolkata and IIT Kanpur have been able to differentiate normal and precancerous tissue, and even identify the different stages of progression of the disease within a few minutes and with great accuracy. In vivo studies are now being carried out.
We present a study which is concerned with word recognition rates for heavily degraded documents. We compare human with machine reading capabilitiesin a series of experiments, which explores the interaction of word/non-word recognition, word frequency and legality of non-words with degradation level. We also study the influence of character segmentation, andcompare human performance with that of our artificial neural network model for reading. We found that the proposed computer model uses word context as efficiently as humans, but performs slightly worse on the pure character recognition task. 1 Introduction Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of machine-print document images ·has matured considerably during the last decade. Recognition rates as high as 99.5% have been reported ongood quality documents. However, for lower image resolutions (200 Dpl and below), noisy images, images with blur or skew, the recognition rate declines considerably. Inbad quality documents, character segmentation is as big a problem as the actual character recognition.
We propose in this paper a statistical model (planar hidden Markov model - PHMM) describing statistical properties of images. The model generalizes the single-dimensional HMM, used for speech processing, to the planar case. For this model to be useful an efficient segmentation algorithm, similar to the Viterbi algorithm for HMM, must exist We present conditions in terms of the PHMM parameters that are sufficient to guarantee that the planar segmentation problem can be solved in polynomial time, and describe an algorithm for that. This algorithm aligns optimally the image with the model, and therefore is insensitive to elastic distortions of images. Using this algorithm a joint optima1 segmentation and recognition of the image can be performed, thus overcoming the weakness of traditional OCR systems where segmentation is performed independently before the recognition leading to unrecoverable recognition errors. Tbe PHMM approach was evaluated using a set of isolated band-written digits. An overall digit recognition accuracy of 95% was acbieved. An analysis of the results showed that even in the simple case of recognition of isolated characters, the elimination of elastic distortions enhances the performance Significantly. We expect that the advantage of this approach will be even more significant for tasks such as connected writing recognition/spotting, for whicb there is no known high accuracy method of recognition.
This paper addresses the probabilistic inference of geometric structures from images. Specifically, of synthesizing range data to enhance the reconstruction of a 3D model of an indoor environment by using video images and (very) partial depth information. In our method, we interpolate the available range data using statistical inferences learned from the concurrently available video images and from those (sparse) regions where both range and intensity information is available. The spatial relationships between the variations in intensity and range can be efficiently captured by the neighborhood system of a Markov Random Field (MRF).