Credit card fraud is an ongoing problem for almost all industries in the world, and it raises millions of dollars to the global economy each year. Therefore, there is a number of research either completed or proceeding in order to detect these kinds of frauds in the industry. These researches generally use rule-based or novel artificial intelligence approaches to find eligible solutions. The ultimate goal of this paper is to summarize state-of-the-art approaches to fraud detection using artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques. While summarizing, we will categorize the common problems such as imbalanced dataset, real time working scenarios, and feature engineering challenges that almost all research works encounter, and identify general approaches to solve them. The imbalanced dataset problem occurs because the number of legitimate transactions is much higher than the fraudulent ones whereas applying the right feature engineering is substantial as the features obtained from the industries are limited, and applying feature engineering methods and reforming the dataset is crucial. Also, adapting the detection system to real time scenarios is a challenge since the number of credit card transactions in a limited time period is very high. In addition, we will discuss how evaluation metrics and machine learning methods differentiate among each research. NTRODUCTION The number of cashless transactions is at its peak point since the beginning of the digital era and it is most likely to increase in the future.
Fraud is a billion-dollar business and expands rapidly year by year. Thousands of people fall victim to it. Fraud always includes a false statement, misinterpretation, or deceitful conduct. Common varieties of fraud offenses include identity theft, insurance fraud, credit/debit card fraud, and mail fraud. The PwC global economic crime survey of 2018 (PwC, 2018) found that about half of the 7,200 surveyed enterprises had already experienced fraud of some kind. This is an increase compared to the PwC survey conducted in 2016 (PwC, 2016), in which slightly more than a third of organizations surveyed had experienced economic crime.
With global credit card fraud loss on the rise, it is important for banks, as well as e-commerce companies, to be able to detect fraudulent transactions (before they are completed). According to the Nilson Report, a publication covering the card and mobile payment industry, global card fraud losses amounted to $22.8 billion in 2016, an increase of 4.4% over 2015. This confirms the importance of the early detection of fraud in credit card transactions. Fraud detection in credit card transactions is a very wide and complex field. Over the years, a number of techniques have been proposed, mostly stemming from the anomaly detection branch of data science. In the first scenario, we can deal with the problem of fraud detection by using classic machine learning or statistics-based techniques. We can train a machine learning model or calculate some probabilities for the two classes (legitimate transactions and fraudulent transactions) and apply the model to new transactions so as to estimate their legitimacy.
Credit card frauds are at an ever-increasing rate and have become a major problem in the financial sector. Because of these frauds, card users are hesitant in making purchases and both the merchants and financial institutions bear heavy losses. Some major challenges in credit card frauds involve the availability of public data, high class imbalance in data, changing nature of frauds and the high number of false alarms. Machine learning techniques have been used to detect credit card frauds but no fraud detection systems have been able to offer great efficiency to date. Recent development of deep learning has been applied to solve complex problems in various areas. This paper presents a thorough study of deep learning methods for the credit card fraud detection problem and compare their performance with various machine learning algorithms on three different financial datasets. Experimental results show great performance of the proposed deep learning methods against traditional machine learning models and imply that the proposed approaches can be implemented effectively for real-world credit card fraud detection systems.
The large variety of digital payment choices available to consumers today has been a key driver of e-commerce transactions in the past decade. Unfortunately, this has also given rise to cybercriminals and fraudsters who are constantly looking for vulnerabilities in these systems by deploying increasingly sophisticated fraud attacks. A typical fraud detection system employs standard supervised learning methods where the focus is on maximizing the fraud recall rate. However, we argue that such a formulation can lead to sub-optimal solutions. The design requirements for these fraud models requires that they are robust to the high-class imbalance in the data, adaptive to changes in fraud patterns, maintain a balance between the fraud rate and the decline rate to maximize revenue, and be amenable to asynchronous feedback since usually there is a significant lag between the transaction and the fraud realization. To achieve this, we formulate fraud detection as a sequential decision-making problem by including the utility maximization within the model in the form of the reward function. The historical decline rate and fraud rate define the state of the system with a binary action space composed of approving or declining the transaction. In this study, we primarily focus on utility maximization and explore different reward functions to this end. The performance of the proposed Reinforcement Learning system has been evaluated for two publicly available fraud datasets using Deep Q-learning and compared with different classifiers. We aim to address the rest of the issues in future work.