One of the essential rules of effective digital marketing is differentiating your strategies based on the appropriate factors. One of the most important factors is how the environment affects your branding. Basically, what may work in one environment may not in another which is why your brand positioning will change based on environmental factors. Part of your market leadership will be to see, understand, and reposition your brand depending on where you plan to sell your goods or services. This will require good observational skills, the willingness to take chances, and the determination to see things through before trying another approach.
In addition to chemical cues, the differentiation of stem cells can be influenced by mechanical forces, such as the stiffness of the underlying substrate, but these effects diminish with age. Barreto et al. compared the differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells from donors aged 11 to 12 years and from young adults aged 20 to 30 years, when the skeleton has fully matured. The juvenile cells showed greater mechanosensitivity and enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis. From an examination of a number of growth factors, the authors found a key role for the protein JNK3, which might serve as a target for restoring the potential for regeneration in adults suffering from bone degeneration to that found in youth.
The prostate and seminal vesicle have closely related developmental histories and both are regulated by the same androgenic hormones. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the two tissues could help solve why cancer arises frequently in the prostate but only rarely in seminal vesicles. Working with cell and mouse models, Dutta et al. show that forced expression of a single gene, the homeobox gene NKX3.1, NKX3.1 regulates the expression of a gene program associated with prostate differentiation by interacting with the G9a histone methyltransferase. Disruption of this regulatory network probably contributes to prostate cancer development.
Timothy Grove, the Robert R. Shrock Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, has been recognized with the 2018 Harry H. Hess Medal by the American Geophysical Union (AGU). The medal is awarded annually for what AGU calls "outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of the Earth and other planets." A past president of the AGU himself (2008-2010), Grove is a geologist who explores the processes that have led to the chemical evolution of Earth and other planets and objects in the solar system including the moon, Mars, Mercury, and meteorite parent bodies. His approach to understanding planetary differentiation is to combine field, petrological, and geochemical studies of igneous rocks with high-pressure, high-temperature experimental petrology. On Earth, his research focuses on mantle melting and subsequent crustal-level magma differentiation at both mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones.
Neuronal birth and specification must be coordinated across the developing brain to generate the neurons that constitute neural circuits. We used the Drosophila visual system to investigate how development is coordinated to establish retinotopy, a feature of all visual systems. Photoreceptors achieve retinotopy by inducing their target field in the optic lobe, the lamina neurons, with a secreted differentiation cue, epidermal growth factor (EGF). We find that communication between photoreceptors and lamina cells requires a signaling relay through glia. In response to photoreceptor-EGF, glia produce insulin-like peptides, which induce lamina neuronal differentiation.