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Cascaded Classification Models: Combining Models for Holistic Scene Understanding

Neural Information Processing Systems

One of the original goals of computer vision was to fully understand a natural scene. This requires solving several problems simultaneously, including object detection, labeling of meaningful regions, and 3d reconstruction. While great progress has been made in tackling each of these problems in isolation, only recently have researchers again been considering the difficult task of assembling various methods to the mutual benefit of all. We consider learning a set of such classification models in such a way that they both solve their own problem and help each other. We develop a framework known as Cascaded Classification Models (CCM), where repeated instantiations of these classifiers are coupled by their input/output variables in a cascade that improves performance at each level.


Fast Classification Rates for High-dimensional Gaussian Generative Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

We consider the problem of binary classification when the covariates conditioned on the each of the response values follow multivariate Gaussian distributions. We focus on the setting where the covariance matrices for the two conditional distributions are the same. The corresponding generative model classifier, derived via the Bayes rule, also called Linear Discriminant Analysis, has been shown to behave poorly in high-dimensional settings. We present a novel analysis of the classification error of any linear discriminant approach given conditional Gaussian models. This allows us to compare the generative model classifier, other recently proposed discriminative approaches that directly learn the discriminant function, and then finally logistic regression which is another classical discriminative model classifier.


Using Transfer Learning for NLP with Small Data

#artificialintelligence

Text classification has numerous applications, from tweet sentiment, product reviews, toxic comments, and more. It's a popular project topic among Insight Fellows, however a lot of time is spent collecting labeled datasets, cleaning data, and deciding which classification method to use. Services like Clarifai, and Google AutoML have made it very easy to create image classification models with less labeled data, but it's not as easy to create such models for text classification. For image classification tasks, transfer learning has proven to be very effective in providing good accuracy with fewer labeled datasets. Transfer learning is a technique that enables the transfer of knowledge learned from one dataset to another.


Instance-Based Classification through Hypothesis Testing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Classification is a fundamental problem in machine learning and data mining. During the past decades, numerous classification methods have been presented based on different principles. However, most existing classifiers cast the classification problem as an optimization problem and do not address the issue of statistical significance. In this paper, we formulate the binary classification problem as a two-sample testing problem. More precisely, our classification model is a generic framework that is composed of two steps. In the first step, the distance between the test instance and each training instance is calculated to derive two distance sets. In the second step, the two-sample test is performed under the null hypothesis that the two sets of distances are drawn from the same cumulative distribution. After these two steps, we have two p-values for each test instance and the test instance is assigned to the class associated with the smaller p-value. Essentially, the presented classification method can be regarded as an instance-based classifier based on hypothesis testing. The experimental results on 40 real data sets show that our method is able to achieve the same level performance as the state-of-the-art classifiers and has significantly better performance than existing testing-based classifiers. Furthermore, we can handle outlying instances and control the false discovery rate of test instances assigned to each class under the same framework.


Marginal and simultaneous predictive classification using stratified graphical models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

An inductive probabilistic classification rule must generally obey the principles of Bayesian predictive inference, such that all observed and unobserved stochastic quantities are jointly modeled and the parameter uncertainty is fully acknowledged through the posterior predictive distribution. Several such rules have been recently considered and their asymptotic behavior has been characterized under the assumption that the observed features or variables used for building a classifier are conditionally independent given a simultaneous labeling of both the training samples and those from an unknown origin. Here we extend the theoretical results to predictive classifiers acknowledging feature dependencies either through graphical models or sparser alternatives defined as stratified graphical models. We also show through experimentation with both synthetic and real data that the predictive classifiers based on stratified graphical models have consistently best accuracy compared with the predictive classifiers based on either conditionally independent features or on ordinary graphical models.