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Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.



Artificial Intelligence for Digital Agriculture at Scale: Techniques, Policies, and Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Digital agriculture has the promise to transform agricultural throughput. It can do this by applying data science and engineering for mapping input factors to crop throughput, while bounding the available resources. In addition, as the data volumes and varieties increase with the increase in sensor deployment in agricultural fields, data engineering techniques will also be instrumental in collection of distributed data as well as distributed processing of the data. These have to be done such that the latency requirements of the end users and applications are satisfied. Understanding how farm technology and big data can improve farm productivity can significantly increase the world's food production by 2050 in the face of constrained arable land and with the water levels receding. While much has been written about digital agriculture's potential, little is known about the economic costs and benefits of these emergent systems. In particular, the on-farm decision making processes, both in terms of adoption and optimal implementation, have not been adequately addressed. For example, if some algorithm needs data from multiple data owners to be pooled together, that raises the question of data ownership. This paper is the first one to bring together the important questions that will guide the end-to-end pipeline for the evolution of a new generation of digital agricultural solutions, driving the next revolution in agriculture and sustainability under one umbrella.


Deploying nEmesis: Preventing Foodborne Illness by Data Mining Social Media

AAAI Conferences

Foodborne illness afflicts 48 million people annually in the U.S.alone. Over 128,000 are hospitalized and 3,000 die from the infection.While preventable with proper food safety practices, the traditional restaurant inspection process has limited impact given the predictability and low frequency of inspections, and the dynamic nature of the kitchen environment. Despite this reality, the inspection process has remained largely unchanged for decades. We apply machine learning to Twitter data and develop a system that automatically detects venues likely to pose a public health hazard.Health professionals subsequently inspect individual flagged venues in a double blind experiment spanning the entire Las Vegas metropolitan area over three months. By contrast, previous research in this domain has been limited to indirect correlative validation using only aggregate statistics. We show that adaptive inspection process is 63% more effective at identifying problematic venues than the current state of the art. The live deployment shows that if every inspection in Las Vegas became adaptive, we can prevent over 9,000 cases of foodborne illness and 557 hospitalizations annually. Additionally,adaptive inspections result in unexpected benefits, including the identification of venues lacking permits, contagious kitchen staff,and fewer customer complaints filed with the Las Vegas health department.