Confidence interval is abbreviated as CI. In this new article (part of our series on robust techniques for automated data science) we describe an implementation both in Excel and Perl, and discuss our popular model-free confidence interval technique introduced in our original Analyticbridge article, as part of our (open source) intellectual property sharing. This is part of our series on data science techniques suitable for automation, usable by non-experts. The next one to be detailed (with source code) will be our Hidden Decision Trees. Figure 1 is based on simulated data that does not follow a normal distribution: see section 2 and Figure 2 in this article. Classical CI's are just based on 2 parameters: mean and variance.

We illustrate pattern recognition techniques applied to an interesting mathematical problem: The representation of a number in non-conventional systems, generalizing the familiar base-2 or base-10 systems. The emphasis is on data science rather than mathematical theory, and the style is that of a tutorial, requiring minimum knowledge in mathematics or statistics. However, some off-the-beaten-path, state-of-the-art number theory research is discussed here, in a way that is accessible to college students after a first course in statistics. This article is also peppered with mathematical and statistical oddities, for instance the fact that there are units of information smaller than the bit. You will also learn how the discovery process works, as I have included research that I thought would lead me to interesting results, but did not. In all scientific research, only final, successful results are presented, while actually most of the research leads to dead-ends, and is not made available to the reader.

This article is intended for practitioners who might not necessarily be statisticians or statistically-savvy. The mathematical level is kept as simple as possible, yet I present an original, simple approach to test for randomness, with an interesting application to illustrate the methodology. This material is not something usually discussed in textbooks or classrooms (even for statistical students), offering a fresh perspective, and out-of-the-box tools that are useful in many contexts, as an addition or alternative to traditional tests that are widely used. This article is written as a tutorial, but it also features an interesting research result in the last section. Let us assume that you are dealing with a time series with discrete time increments (for instance, daily observations) as opposed to a time-continuous process.

In this article, you will learn some modern techniques to detect whether a sequence appears as random or not, whether it satisfies the central limit theorem (CLT) or not -- and what the limiting distribution is if CLT does not apply -- as well as some tricks to detect abnormalities. It leads to the exploration of time series with massive, large-scale (long term) auto-correlation structure, as well as model-free, data-driven statistical testing. No statistical knowledge is required: we will discuss deep results that can be expressed in simple English. Most of the testing involved here uses big data (more than a billion computations) and data science, to the point that we reached the accuracy limits of our machines. So there is even a tiny piece of numerical analysis in this article.

Most of the articles on extreme events are focusing on the extreme values. Very little has been written about the arrival times of these events. This article fills the gap. We are interested here in the distribution of arrival times of successive records in a time series, with potential applications to global warming assessment, sport analytics, or high frequency trading. The purpose here is to discover what the distribution of these arrival times is, in absence of any trends or auto-correlations, for instance to check if the global warming hypothesis is compatible with temperature data obtained over the last 200 years.