Long-time world checkers champion Marion Tinsley consistently bested all comers, losing only nine games in the 40 years following his 1954 crowning. He lost his world championship title to a computer program in 1994 and now that same program has become unbeatable; its creators have proved that even a perfectly played game against it will end in a draw. Jonathan Schaeffer and his team at the University of Alberta, Canada, have been working on their program, called Chinook, since 1989, running calculations on as many as 200 computers simultaneously. Schaeffer has now announced that they have solved the game of American checkers, which is played on an 8 by 8 board and is also known as English draughts. The team directed Chinook so it didn't have to go through every one of the 500 billion billion (5 * 1020) possible moves.
Tinsley admirably overcomes this obstruction, how Tinsley's sacrifice enables his ultimate defeat, and how vided more than a glimpse of the Tinsley deals with the end of his domination University of Alberta set out to intense process it described. One Jump Ahead was written by the On a sad note, the community He succeeded. Even though One Jump Ahead is human nature. Schaeffer had to unfortunate because the world checkers the human aspects of Schaeffer's journey Finally, Kidder's book, The Soul of a New nearly unbeatable world champion of Schaeffer had to deal with However, One Jump Ahead is We also get to know many of his about and what the consequences of quite different and, in my opinion, friends and rivals, including Asa Long, this success were. We and turns has lessons to be learned was written by an outsider-- one who see these checkers players not just as about human nature.
An invincible checkers-playing program named Chinook has solved a game whose origins date back several millennia, scientists reported Thursday on the journal Science's Web site. By playing out every possible move -- about 500 billion billion in all -- the computer proved it can never be beaten. Even if its opponent also played flawlessly, the outcome would be a draw. Chinook, created by computer scientists from the University of Alberta in 1989, wrapped up its work less than three months ago. In doing so, its programmers say the newly crowned checkers king has solved the most challenging game yet cracked by a machine -- even outdoing the chess-playing wizardry of IBM's Deep Blue.
It has taken more than 18 years, and hundreds of computers to crunch numbers through the night, but yesterday Jonathan Schaefer declared his job done: he had written the world's first program that was unbeatable at the game of draughts. Chinook, as the program is known, can calculate a winning response to any move made by its opponent. The worst result it can ever have is a draw, according to Dr Schaefer, an expert in artificial intelligence, working at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. The game of draughts, played on a board with eight by eight squares, is the most complicated game ever solved thanks to artificial intelligence. The number of possible positions in a game makes it one million times more complex than Connect Four.
"The program can achieve at least a draw against any opponent, playing either the black or white pieces," the researchers say in this week's online edition of the journal Science. "Clearly ... the world is not going to be revolutionized" by this, said Jonathan Schaeffer, chairman of the department of computing science at the University of Alberta. The important thing is the approach, he said. In the past, game-playing programs have used rules of thumb -- which are right most of the time, he said -- to make decisions. "What we've done is show that you can take non-trivial problems, very large problems, and you can do the same kind of reasoning with perfection.