Donald Hebb's hypothesis that coactivation of neurons leads to the formation of ensembles of neurons has inspired neuroscientists for decades. The experimental creation of such ensembles has been technically challenging. Using two-photon optogenetic stimulation with single-cell resolution, Carrillo-Reid et al. discovered that recurrent activation of a group of neurons creates an ensemble that is imprinted in the brain circuitry. Activation of a single neuron can lead to recall of the entire ensemble in a phenomenon called pattern completion. The artificial ensemble persists over days and can be reactivated at later time points without interfering with endogenous circuitry.
Heterogeneous ensembles built from the predictions of a wide variety and large number of diverse base predictors represent a potent approach to building predictive models for problems where the ideal base/individual predictor may not be obvious. Ensemble selection is an especially promising approach here, not only for improving prediction performance, but also because of its ability to select a collectively predictive subset, often a relatively small one, of the base predictors. In this paper, we present a set of algorithms that explicitly incorporate ensemble diversity, a known factor influencing predictive performance of ensembles, into a reinforcement learning framework for ensemble selection. We rigorously tested these approaches on several challenging problems and associated data sets, yielding that several of them produced more accurate ensembles than those that don't explicitly consider diversity. More importantly, these diversity-incorporating ensembles were much smaller in size, i.e., more parsimonious, than the latter types of ensembles. This can eventually aid the interpretation or reverse engineering of predictive models assimilated into the resultant ensemble(s).
This paper focuses on scalability and robustness of spectral clustering for extremely large-scale datasets with limited resources. Two novel algorithms are proposed, namely, ultra-scalable spectral clustering (U-SPEC) and ultra-scalable ensemble clustering (U-SENC). In U-SPEC, a hybrid representative selection strategy and a fast approximation method for K-nearest representatives are proposed for the construction of a sparse affinity sub-matrix. By interpreting the sparse sub-matrix as a bipartite graph, the transfer cut is then utilized to efficiently partition the graph and obtain the clustering result. In U-SENC, multiple U-SPEC clusterers are further integrated into an ensemble clustering framework to enhance the robustness of U-SPEC while maintaining high efficiency. Based on the ensemble generation via multiple U-SEPC's, a new bipartite graph is constructed between objects and base clusters and then efficiently partitioned to achieve the consensus clustering result. It is noteworthy that both U-SPEC and U-SENC have nearly linear time and space complexity, and are capable of robustly and efficiently partitioning ten-million-level nonlinearly-separable datasets on a PC with 64GB memory. Experiments on various large-scale datasets have demonstrated the scalability and robustness of our algorithms. The MATLAB code and experimental data are available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330760669.
Ensembles over neural network weights trained from different random initialization, known as deep ensembles, achieve state-of-the-art accuracy and calibration. The recently introduced batch ensembles provide a drop-in replacement that is more parameter efficient. In this paper, we design ensembles not only over weights, but over hyperparameters to improve the state of the art in both settings. For best performance independent of budget, we propose hyper-deep ensembles, a simple procedure that involves a random search over different hyperparameters, themselves stratified across multiple random initializations. Its strong performance highlights the benefit of combining models with both weight and hyperparameter diversity. We further propose a parameter efficient version, hyper-batch ensembles, which builds on the layer structure of batch ensembles and self-tuning networks. The computational and memory costs of our method are notably lower than typical ensembles. On image classification tasks, with MLP, LeNet, ResNet 20 and Wide ResNet 28-10 architectures, we improve upon both deep and batch ensembles.