Exploratory data analysis is a crucial task for developing effective classification models from high dimensional datasets. We explore the utility of a new unsupervised tree ensemble which we call, uncharted forest, for purposes of elucidating class associations, sample-sample associations, class heterogeneity, and uninformative classes for provenance studies. Uncharted forest partitions data along random variables which offer the most gain from various gain metrics, namely variance. After each tree is grown, a tally of every terminal node's sample membership is constructed such that a probabilistic measure for each sample being partitioned with one another can be stored in one matrix. That matrix may be readily viewed as a heat map, and the probabilities can be quantified via metrics which account for class or cluster membership. We display the advantages and limitations of this technique by applying it to 1 exemplary dataset and 3 provenance study datasets. The method is also validated by comparing the sample association metrics to clustering algorithms with known variance based clustering mechanisms.
Traditional clustering algorithms such as K-means rely heavily on the nature of the chosen metric or data representation. To get meaningful clusters, these representations need to be tailored to the downstream task (e.g. cluster photos by object category, cluster faces by identity). Therefore, we frame clustering as a meta-learning task, few-shot clustering, which allows us to specify how to cluster the data at the meta-training level, despite the clustering algorithm itself being unsupervised. We propose Centroid Networks, a simple and efficient few-shot clustering method based on learning representations which are tailored both to the task to solve and to its internal clustering module. We also introduce unsupervised few-shot classification, which is conceptually similar to few-shot clustering, but is strictly harder than supervised* few-shot classification and therefore allows direct comparison with existing supervised few-shot classification methods. On Omniglot and miniImageNet, our method achieves accuracy competitive with popular supervised few-shot classification algorithms, despite using *no labels* from the support set. We also show performance competitive with state-of-the-art learning-to-cluster methods.
A Classification-Based Approach to Semi-Supervised Clustering with Pairwise Constraints Marek Smieja a,, Łukasz Struski a, Mário A. T. Figueiredo b a Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland b Instituto de T elecomunicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, PortugalAbstract In this paper, we introduce a neural network framework for semi-supervised clustering (SSC) with pairwise (must-link or cannot-link) constraints. In contrast to existing approaches, we decompose SSC into two simpler classification tasks/stages: the first stage uses a pair of Siamese neural networks to label the unlabeled pairs of points as must-link or cannot-link; the second stage uses the fully pairwise-labeled dataset produced by the first stage in a supervised neural-network-based clustering method. The proposed approach, S 3 C 2 (Semi-Supervised Siamese C lassifiers for C lustering), is motivated by the observation that binary classification (such as assigning pairwise relations) is usually easier than multi-class clustering with partial supervision. On the other hand, being classification-based, our method solves only well-defined classification problems, rather than less well specified clustering tasks. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate the high performance of the proposed method. Keywords: semi-supervised clustering, deep learning, neural networks, pairwise constraints 1. Introduction Clustering is an important unsupervised learning tool often used to analyze the structure of complex high-dimensional data. Semi-supervised clustering (SSC) methods tackle this issue by leveraging partial prior information about class labels, with the goal of obtaining partitions that are better aligned with true classes [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. One typical way of injecting class label information into clustering is in the form of pairwise constraints (typically, must-link and cannot-link constraints), or pairwise preferences (e.g., should-link and shouldn't-link), which indicate whether a given pair of points is believed to belong to the same or different classes. Most SSC approaches rely on adapting existing unsupervised clustering methods to handle partial (namely, pairwise) information [7, 8, 4, 5, 6, 9].
Traditionally, text classifiers are built from labeled training examples. Labeling is usually done manually by human experts (or the users), which is a labor intensive and time consuming process. In the past few years, researchers investigated various forms of semi-supervised learning to reduce the burden of manual labeling. In this paper, we propose a different approach. Instead of labeling a set of documents, the proposed method labels a set of representative words for each class.
In this article, we will study the various types of machine learning algorithms and their use-cases. We will study how Baidu is using supervised learning-based facial recognition for intelligent airport check-in and how Google is making use of Reinforcement Learning to develop an intelligent platform that would answer your queries. Machine Learning is a broad field, but it is classified into three classes of supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning. All these three paradigms are used everywhere to power intelligent applications. We will look at the important use cases of these paradigms and how they are revolutionizing our world today.