Shalev-shwartz, Shai, Wexler, Yonatan, Shashua, Amnon

Multiclass prediction is the problem of classifying an object into a relevant target class. We consider the problem of learning a multiclass predictor that uses only few features, and in particular, the number of used features should increase sub-linearly with the number of possible classes. This implies that features should be shared by several classes. We describe and analyze the ShareBoost algorithm for learning a multiclass predictor that uses few shared features. We prove that ShareBoost efficiently finds a predictor that uses few shared features (if such a predictor exists) and that it has a small generalization error.

Shalev-Shwartz, Shai (The Hebrew University) | Shamir, Ohad (The Hebrew University and Microsoft Research) | Sridharan, Karthik (Toyota Technological Institute)

Some of the most successful machine learning algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines, are based on learning linear and kernel predictors with respect to a convex loss function, such as the hinge loss. For classification purposes, a more natural loss function is the 0-1 loss. However, using it leads to a non-convex problem for which there is no known efficient algorithm. In this paper, we describe and analyze a new algorithm for learning linear or kernel predictors with respect to the 0-1 loss function. The algorithm is parameterized by $L$, which quantifies the effective width around the decision boundary in which the predictor may be uncertain. We show that without any distributional assumptions, and for any fixed $L$, the algorithm runs in polynomial time, and learns a classifier which is worse than the optimal such classifier by at most $\epsilon$. We also prove a hardness result, showing that under a certain cryptographic assumption, no algorithm can learn such classifiers in time polynomial in $L$.

Dudziak, Łukasz, Chau, Thomas, Abdelfattah, Mohamed S., Lee, Royson, Kim, Hyeji, Lane, Nicholas D.

Neural architecture search (NAS) enables researchers to automatically explore broad design spaces in order to improve efficiency of neural networks. This efficiency is especially important in the case of on-device deployment, where improvements in accuracy should be balanced out with computational demands of a model. In practice, performance metrics of model are computationally expensive to obtain. Previous work uses a proxy (e.g., number of operations) or a layer-wise measurement of neural network layers to estimate end-to-end hardware performance but the imprecise prediction diminishes the quality of NAS. To address this problem, we propose BRP-NAS, an efficient hardware-aware NAS enabled by an accurate performance predictor-based on graph convolutional network (GCN). What is more, we investigate prediction quality on different metrics and show that sample efficiency of the predictor-based NAS can be improved by considering binary relations of models and an iterative data selection strategy. We show that our proposed method outperforms all prior methods on NAS-Bench-101, NAS-Bench-201 and DARTS. Finally, to raise awareness of the fact that accurate latency estimation is not a trivial task, we release LatBench -- a latency dataset of NAS-Bench-201 models running on a broad range of devices.

Conformal predictors, introduced by Vovk et al. (2005), serve to build prediction intervals by exploiting a notion of conformity of the new data point with previously observed data. In the present paper, we propose a novel method for constructing prediction intervals for the response variable in multivariate linear models. The main emphasis is on sparse linear models, where only few of the covariates have significant influence on the response variable even if their number is very large. Our approach is based on combining the principle of conformal prediction with the $\ell_1$ penalized least squares estimator (LASSO). The resulting confidence set depends on a parameter $\epsilon>0$ and has a coverage probability larger than or equal to $1-\epsilon$. The numerical experiments reported in the paper show that the length of the confidence set is small. Furthermore, as a by-product of the proposed approach, we provide a data-driven procedure for choosing the LASSO penalty. The selection power of the method is illustrated on simulated data.

Mishler, Alan, Kennedy, Edward

Methods for building fair predictors often involve tradeoffs between fairness and accuracy and between different fairness criteria, but the nature of these tradeoffs varies. Recent work seeks to characterize these tradeoffs in specific problem settings, but these methods often do not accommodate users who wish to improve the fairness of an existing benchmark model without sacrificing accuracy, or vice versa. These results are also typically restricted to observable accuracy and fairness criteria. We develop a flexible framework for fair ensemble learning that allows users to efficiently explore the fairness-accuracy space or to improve the fairness or accuracy of a benchmark model. Our framework can simultaneously target multiple observable or counterfactual fairness criteria, and it enables users to combine a large number of previously trained and newly trained predictors. We provide theoretical guarantees that our estimators converge at fast rates. We apply our method on both simulated and real data, with respect to both observable and counterfactual accuracy and fairness criteria. We show that, surprisingly, multiple unfairness measures can sometimes be minimized simultaneously with little impact on accuracy, relative to unconstrained predictors or existing benchmark models.