If you go to the app store right now, you see a little ad for Pokémon GO at the top of the screen: "new Pokémon are here!" The answer to that question, on an essential level, is no. Niantic may have put a small number of new creatures in the game, but you can't find them in the sense that you find other Pokémon in the game, out there in the wild. You can only hatch them from eggs, and only new eggs at that. Also, there are only seven of them.
Friedman and Hayek put much more emphasis on making the case for free markets, whereas Buchanan's distinctive mission was to make a case against government. He said we should think of politicians, elected officials, as seeking their own self-interest in re-election. And that's why they'll make multiple costly promises to multiple constituencies, because they won't have to pay for it. And he would say agency officials--say, an official at the EPA--would just keep trying to expand the agency, because that would expand their power and resources.
Given the way most Americans live--in single-family homes, often with significant amounts of space between them--it takes a lot of resources, labor, and customer time to complete the final mile of a delivery marathon. Distributions gets progressively more challenging, and less efficient, the closer you get to the customer and the more individualized the service is. It's hard to get economies of scale. In my small cul-de-sac in suburban Connecticut, I can watch a series of delivery trucks (from the Postal Service, UPS, Federal Express) roll through over the course of the day, often delivering only a single package to a single home. And as they go about their rounds, delivery people have to grapple with traffic, accidents, the need to fuel up, and roadwork.
It's perhaps no surprise that Marvel is not doling out much in the way of plot in the ramp-up for Avengers: Endgame. The latest trailer, like the one before it, leans heavy on sad heroes promising vague action. But what it does have? The lack of anything approaching a spoiler makes sense. Avengers: Endgame represents the culmination of 11 years of orchestration across 21 films.
Unlike perfect-information games, imperfect-information games cannot be decomposed into subgames that are solved independently. Thus more computationally intensive equilibrium-finding techniques are used, and abstraction---in which a smaller version of the game is generated and solved---is essential. Endgame solving is the process of computing a (presumably) better strategy for just an endgame than what can be computationally afforded for the full game. Endgame solving has many benefits, such as being able to 1) solve the endgame in a finer information abstraction than what is computationally feasible for the full game, and 2) incorporate into the endgame actions that an opponent took that were not included in the action abstraction used to solve the full game. We introduce an endgame solving technique that outperforms prior methods both in theory and practice. We also show how to adapt it, and past endgame-solving techniques, to respond to opponent actions that are outside the original action abstraction; this significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approach, action translation. Finally, we show that endgame solving can be repeated as the game progresses down the tree, leading to significantly lower exploitability. All of the techniques are evaluated in terms of exploitability; to our knowledge, this is the first time that exploitability of endgame-solving techniques has been measured in large imperfect-information games.