Probability is a field of mathematics that is universally agreed to be the bedrock for machine learning. Although probability is a large field with many esoteric theories and findings, the nuts and bolts, tools and notations taken from the field are required for machine learning practitioners. With a solid foundation of what probability is, it is possible to focus on just the good or relevant parts. In this crash course, you will discover how you can get started and confidently understand and implement probabilistic methods used in machine learning with Python in seven days. This is a big and important post. You might want to bookmark it. Probability for Machine Learning (7-Day Mini-Course) Photo by Percita, some rights reserved.

This paper considers the computational power of constant size, dynamic Bayesian networks. Although discrete dynamic Bayesian networks are no more powerful than hidden Markov models, dynamic Bayesian networks with continuous random variables and discrete children of continuous parents are capable of performing Turing-complete computation. With modified versions of existing algorithms for belief propagation, such a simulation can be carried out in real time. This result suggests that dynamic Bayesian networks may be more powerful than previously considered. Relationships to causal models and recurrent neural networks are also discussed.

Roughly speaking, my machine learning journey began on Kaggle. "Regression models predict continuous-valued real numbers; classification models predict'red,' 'green,' 'blue.' Typically, the former employs the mean squared error or mean absolute error; the latter, the cross-entropy loss. Stochastic gradient descent updates the model's parameters to drive these losses down." Furthermore, to fit these models, just import sklearn. A dexterity with the above is often sufficient for -- at least from a technical stance -- both employment and impact as a data scientist. In industry, commonplace prediction and inference problems -- binary churn, credit scoring, product recommendation and A/B testing, for example -- are easily matched with an off-the-shelf algorithm plus proficient data scientist for a measurable boost to the company's bottom line. In a vacuum I think this is fine: the winning driver does not need to know how to build the car.

The probability for a discrete random variable can be summarized with a discrete probability distribution. Discrete probability distributions are used in machine learning, most notably in the modeling of binary and multi-class classification problems, but also in evaluating the performance for binary classification models, such as the calculation of confidence intervals, and in the modeling of the distribution of words in text for natural language processing. Knowledge of discrete probability distributions is also required in the choice of activation functions in the output layer of deep learning neural networks for classification tasks and selecting an appropriate loss function. Discrete probability distributions play an important role in applied machine learning and there are a few distributions that a practitioner must know about. In this tutorial, you will discover discrete probability distributions used in machine learning.