Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.
Deep learning models are being deployed in many mobile intelligent applications. End-side services, such as intelligent personal assistants, autonomous cars, and smart home services often employ either simple local models on the mobile or complex remote models on the cloud. However, recent studies have shown that partitioning the DNN computations between the mobile and cloud can increase the latency and energy efficiencies. In this paper, we propose an efficient, adaptive, and practical engine, JointDNN, for collaborative computation between a mobile device and cloud for DNNs in both inference and training phase. JointDNN not only provides an energy and performance efficient method of querying DNNs for the mobile side but also benefits the cloud server by reducing the amount of its workload and communications compared to the cloud-only approach. Given the DNN architecture, we investigate the efficiency of processing some layers on the mobile device and some layers on the cloud server. We provide optimization formulations at layer granularity for forward- and backward-propagations in DNNs, which can adapt to mobile battery limitations and cloud server load constraints and quality of service. JointDNN achieves up to 18 and 32 times reductions on the latency and mobile energy consumption of querying DNNs compared to the status-quo approaches, respectively.
Autonomous Vehicles (AV) are expected to bring considerable benefits to society, such as traffic optimization and accidents reduction. They rely heavily on advances in many Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches and techniques. However, while some researchers in this field believe AI is the core element to enhance safety, others believe AI imposes new challenges to assure the safety of these new AI-based systems and applications. In this non-convergent context, this paper presents a systematic literature review to paint a clear picture of the state of the art of the literature in AI on AV safety. Based on an initial sample of 4870 retrieved papers, 59 studies were selected as the result of the selection criteria detailed in the paper. The shortlisted studies were then mapped into six categories to answer the proposed research questions. An AV system model was proposed and applied to orient the discussions about the SLR findings. As a main result, we have reinforced our preliminary observation about the necessity of considering a serious safety agenda for the future studies on AI-based AV systems.