Word frequency-based methods for extractive summarization are easy to implement and yield reasonable results across languages. However, they have significant limitations - they ignore the role of context, they offer uneven coverage of topics in a document, and sometimes are disjointed and hard to read. We use a simple premise from linguistic typology - that English sentences are complete descriptors of potential interactions between entities, usually in the order subject-verb-object - to address a subset of these difficulties. We have developed a hybrid model of extractive summarization that combines word-frequency based keyword identification with information from automatically generated entity relationship graphs to select sentences for summaries. Comparative evaluation with word-frequency and topic word-based methods shows that the proposed method is competitive by conventional ROUGE standards, and yields moderately more informative summaries on average, as assessed by a large panel (N 94) of human raters.
Abstractive summarization is an ideal form of summarization since it can synthesize information from multiple documents to create concise informative summaries. In this work, we aim at developing an abstractive summarizer. First, our proposed approach identifies the most important document in the multi-document set. The sentences in the most important document are aligned to sentences in other documents to generate clusters of similar sentences. Second, we generate K-shortest paths from the sentences in each cluster using a word-graph structure. Finally, we select sentences from the set of shortest paths generated from all the clusters employing a novel integer linear programming (ILP) model with the objective of maximizing information content and readability of the final summary. Our ILP model represents the shortest paths as binary variables and considers the length of the path, information score and linguistic quality score in the objective function. Experimental results on the DUC 2004 and 2005 multi-document summarization datasets show that our proposed approach outperforms all the baselines and state-of-the-art extractive summarizers as measured by the ROUGE scores. Our method also outperforms a recent abstractive summarization technique. In manual evaluation, our approach also achieves promising results on informativeness and readability.
We present importance aligned key iterative algorithm for extractive summarization that is faster than conventional algorithms keeping its accuracy. The computational complexity of our algorithm is O($SNlogN$) to summarize original $N$ sentences into final $S$ sentences. Our algorithm maximizes the weighted dissimilarity defined by the product of importance and cosine dissimilarity so that the summary represents the document and at the same time the sentences of the summary are not similar to each other. The weighted dissimilarity is heuristically maximized by iterative greedy search and binary search to the sentences ordered by importance. We finally show a benchmark score based on summarization of customer reviews of products, which highlights the quality of our algorithm comparable to human and existing algorithms. We provide the source code of our algorithm on github https://github.com/qhapaq-49/imakita .
We introduce a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salience is typically defined in terms of the presence of particular important words or in terms of similarity to a centroid pseudo-sentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, for computing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graph representation of sentences.
We introduce a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salience is typically defined in terms of the presence of particular important words or in terms of similarity to a centroid pseudo-sentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, for computing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graph representation of sentences. In this model, a connectivity matrix based on intra-sentence cosine similarity is used as the adjacency matrix of the graph representation of sentences. Our system, based on LexRank ranked in first place in more than one task in the recent DUC 2004 evaluation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of our approach and apply it to a larger data set including data from earlier DUC evaluations. We discuss several methods to compute centrality using the similarity graph. The results show that degree-based methods (including LexRank) outperform both centroid-based methods and other systems participating in DUC in most of the cases. Furthermore, the LexRank with threshold method outperforms the other degree-based techniques including continuous LexRank. We also show that our approach is quite insensitive to the noise in the data that may result from an imperfect topical clustering of documents.