Recent years have witnessed widespread adoption of machine learning (ML)/deep learning (DL) techniques due to their superior performance for a variety of healthcare applications ranging from the prediction of cardiac arrest from one-dimensional heart signals to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) using multi-dimensional medical images. Notwithstanding the impressive performance of ML/DL, there are still lingering doubts regarding the robustness of ML/DL in healthcare settings (which is traditionally considered quite challenging due to the myriad security and privacy issues involved), especially in light of recent results that have shown that ML/DL are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. In this paper, we present an overview of various application areas in healthcare that leverage such techniques from security and privacy point of view and present associated challenges. In addition, we present potential methods to ensure secure and privacy-preserving ML for healthcare applications. Finally, we provide insight into the current research challenges and promising directions for future research.
This article discusses how the language of causality can shed new light on the major challenges in machine learning for medical imaging: 1) data scarcity, which is the limited availability of high-quality annotations, and 2) data mismatch, whereby a trained algorithm may fail to generalize in clinical practice. Looking at these challenges through the lens of causality allows decisions about data collection, annotation procedures, and learning strategies to be made (and scrutinized) more transparently. We discuss how causal relationships between images and annotations can not only have profound effects on the performance of predictive models, but may even dictate which learning strategies should be considered in the first place. For example, we conclude that semi-supervision may be unsuitable for image segmentation---one of the possibly surprising insights from our causal analysis, which is illustrated with representative real-world examples of computer-aided diagnosis (skin lesion classification in dermatology) and radiotherapy (automated contouring of tumours). We highlight that being aware of and accounting for the causal relationships in medical imaging data is important for the safe development of machine learning and essential for regulation and responsible reporting. To facilitate this we provide step-by-step recommendations for future studies.
Medical images differ from natural images in significantly higher resolutions and smaller regions of interest. Because of these differences, neural network architectures that work well for natural images might not be applicable to medical image analysis. In this work, we extend the globally-aware multiple instance classifier, a framework we proposed to address these unique properties of medical images. This model first uses a low-capacity, yet memory-efficient, network on the whole image to identify the most informative regions. It then applies another higher-capacity network to collect details from chosen regions. Finally, it employs a fusion module that aggregates global and local information to make a final prediction. While existing methods often require lesion segmentation during training, our model is trained with only image-level labels and can generate pixel-level saliency maps indicating possible malignant findings. We apply the model to screening mammography interpretation: predicting the presence or absence of benign and malignant lesions. On the NYU Breast Cancer Screening Dataset, consisting of more than one million images, our model achieves an AUC of 0.93 in classifying breasts with malignant findings, outperforming ResNet-34 and Faster R-CNN. Compared to ResNet-34, our model is 4.1x faster for inference while using 78.4% less GPU memory. Furthermore, we demonstrate, in a reader study, that our model surpasses radiologist-level AUC by a margin of 0.11. The proposed model is available online: https://github.com/nyukat/GMIC.
The evidence says that liver disease detection using CAD is one of the most efficient techniques but the presence of better organization of studies and the performance parameters to represent the result analysis of the proposed techniques are pointedly missing in most of the recent studies. Few benchmarked studies have been found in some of the papers as benchmarking makes a reader understand that under which circumstances their experimental results or outcomes are better and useful for the future implementation and adoption of the work. Liver diseases and image processing algorithms, especially in medicine, are the most important and important topics of the day. Unfortunately, the necessary data and data, as they are invoked in the articles, are low in this area and require the revision and implementation of policies in order to gather and do more research in this field. Detection with ultrasound is quite normal in liver diseases and depends on the physician's experience and skills. CAD systems are very important for doctors to understand medical images and improve the accuracy of diagnosing various diseases. In the following, we describe the techniques used in the various stages of a CAD system, namely: extracting features, selecting features, and classifying them. Although there are many techniques that are used to classify medical images, it is still a challenging issue for creating a universally accepted approach.
Chest radiographs are commonly performed low-cost exams for screening and diagnosis. However, radiographs are 2D representations of 3D structures causing considerable clutter impeding visual inspection and automated image analysis. Here, we propose a Fully Convolutional Network to suppress, for a specific task, undesired visual structure from radiographs while retaining the relevant image information such as lung-parenchyma. The proposed algorithm creates reconstructed radiographs and ground-truth data from high resolution CT-scans. Results show that removing visual variation that is irrelevant for a classification task improves the performance of a classifier when only limited training data are available. This is particularly relevant because a low number of ground-truth cases is common in medical imaging.