Collaborating Authors

K-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm


KNN is a non-parametric and lazy learning algorithm. Non-parametric means there is no assumption for underlying data distribution. In other words, the model structure determined from the dataset. This will be very helpful in practice where most of the real-world datasets do not follow mathematical theoretical assumptions. KNN is one of the most simple and traditional non-parametric techniques to classify samples. Given an input vector, KNN calculates the approximate distances between the vectors and then assign the points which are not yet labeled to the class of its K-nearest neighbors. The lazy algorithm means it does not need any training data points for model generation. All training data used in the testing phase.

Compact Binary Fingerprint for Image Copy Re-Ranking Artificial Intelligence

Image copy detection is challenging and appealing topic in computer vision and signal processing. Recent advancements in multimedia have made distribution of image across the global easy and fast: that leads to many other issues such as forgery and image copy retrieval. Local keypoint descriptors such as SIFT are used to represent the images, and based on those descriptors matching, images are matched and retrieved. Features are quantized so that searching/matching may be made feasible for large databases at the cost of accuracy loss. In this paper, we propose binary feature that is obtained by quantizing the SIFT into binary, and rank list is re-examined to remove the false positives. Experiments on challenging dataset shows the gain in accuracy and time.

Web image search engine based on LSH index and CNN Resnet50 Artificial Intelligence

To implement a good Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system, it is essential to adopt efficient search methods. One way to achieve this results is by exploiting approximate search techniques. In fact, when we deal with very large collections of data, using an exact search method makes the system very slow. In this project, we adopt the Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) index to implement a CBIR system that allows us to perform fast similarity search on deep features. Specifically, we exploit transfer learning techniques to extract deep features from images; this phase is done using two famous Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) as features extractors: Resnet50 and Resnet50v2, both pre-trained on ImageNet. Then we try out several fully connected deep neural networks, built on top of both of the previously mentioned CNNs in order to fine-tuned them on our dataset. In both of previous cases, we index the features within our LSH index implementation and within a sequential scan, to better understand how much the introduction of the index affects the results. Finally, we carry out a performance analysis: we evaluate the relevance of the result set, computing the mAP (mean Average Precision) value obtained during the different experiments with respect to the number of done comparison and varying the hyper-parameter values of the LSH index.

A Smart System for Selection of Optimal Product Images in E-Commerce Artificial Intelligence

In e-commerce, content quality of the product catalog plays a key role in delivering a satisfactory experience to the customers. In particular, visual content such as product images influences customers' engagement and purchase decisions. With the rapid growth of e-commerce and the advent of artificial intelligence, traditional content management systems are giving way to automated scalable systems. In this paper, we present a machine learning driven visual content management system for extremely large e-commerce catalogs. For a given product, the system aggregates images from various suppliers, understands and analyzes them to produce a superior image set with optimal image count and quality, and arranges them in an order tailored to the demands of the customers. The system makes use of an array of technologies, ranging from deep learning to traditional computer vision, at different stages of analysis. In this paper, we outline how the system works and discuss the unique challenges related to applying machine learning techniques to real-world data from e-commerce domain. We emphasize how we tune state-of-the-art image classification techniques to develop solutions custom made for a massive, diverse, and constantly evolving product catalog. We also provide the details of how we measure the system's impact on various customer engagement metrics.

Benchmarking unsupervised near-duplicate image detection Machine Learning

Unsupervised near-duplicate detection has many practical applications ranging from social media analysis and web-scale retrieval, to digital image forensics. It entails running a threshold-limited query on a set of descriptors extracted from the images, with the goal of identifying all possible near-duplicates, while limiting the false positives due to visually similar images. Since the rate of false alarms grows with the dataset size, a very high specificity is thus required, up to $1 - 10^{-9}$ for realistic use cases; this important requirement, however, is often overlooked in literature. In recent years, descriptors based on deep convolutional neural networks have matched or surpassed traditional feature extraction methods in content-based image retrieval tasks. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first attempt to establish the performance range of deep learning-based descriptors for unsupervised near-duplicate detection on a range of datasets, encompassing a broad spectrum of near-duplicate definitions. We leverage both established and new benchmarks, such as the Mir-Flick Near-Duplicate (MFND) dataset, in which a known ground truth is provided for all possible pairs over a general, large scale image collection. To compare the specificity of different descriptors, we reduce the problem of unsupervised detection to that of binary classification of near-duplicate vs. not-near-duplicate images. The latter can be conveniently characterized using Receiver Operating Curve (ROC). Our findings in general favor the choice of fine-tuning deep convolutional networks, as opposed to using off-the-shelf features, but differences at high specificity settings depend on the dataset and are often small. The best performance was observed on the MFND benchmark, achieving 96\% sensitivity at a false positive rate of $1.43 \times 10^{-6}$.