A communist state, in popular usage, is a state with a form of government characterized by one-party rule or dominant-party rule of a communist party and a professed allegiance to a Leninist or Marxist–Leninist communist ideology as the guiding principle of the state. The founder and primary theorist of Marxism, the nineteenth-century German sociologist Karl Marx, had an ambivalent attitude toward religion, viewing it primarily as "the opium of the people" that had been used by the ruling classes to give the working classes false hope for millennia, whilst at the same time recognizing it as a form of protest by the working classes against their poor economic conditions. In the Marxist–Leninist interpretation of Marxist theory, developed primarily by Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, religion is seen as negative to human development, and communist states that follow a Marxist–Leninist variant are atheistic and explicitly antireligious.
More than 60 world leaders gathered in Paris Sunday to mark 100 years since the end of World War I, and although the general theme was unity, President Donald Trump seemed determined to stand apart. While world leaders took a bus to the Arc de Triomphe and walked side-by-side as bells tolled to mark the exact moment 100 years ago when the war ended, Trump arrived with his own motorcade. Russian President Vladimir Putin also arrived separately and walked in by himself to the ceremony that included, among others, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. White House press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders said Trump arrived separately "due to security protocols." But his insistence on standing apart didn't sit well with others, particularly after Trump drew fire for his decision to cancel his appearance at a memorial service Saturday because of rain.
The international air traffic control agency Eurocontrol has warned airlines to exercise caution in the eastern Mediterranean due to the possible launch of air strikes into Syria in the next 72 hours. Eurocontrol said that air-to-ground and/or cruise missiles could be used within that period and there was a possibility of intermittent disruption of radio navigation equipment. US President Donald Trump and Western allies are discussing possible military action after they blamed Syria's President Bashar al-Assad for a suspected poison gas attack on Saturday on a rebel-held town that long had held out against government forces. Trump on Tuesday cancelled a planned trip to Latin America later this week to focus instead on responding to the Syria incident, the White House said. Trump had on Monday warned of a quick, forceful response once responsibility for the Syria attack was established.
After weeks of unrelenting chaos, the cybersecurity world took a little bit of a breather. There was still one of the biggest data breaches in recent memory, compliments of UnderArmour. But hey, everyone makes mistakes, including the world's most elite hackers--just ask the Russian intelligence agent behind the Guccifer 2.0 persona, whose failure to use a VPN just once outed him as GRU. Or ask people who used Monero in the early days and put too much faith in its privacy protections, which a new study says aren't as robust as they seemed, especially before a recent update. Or even ask Facebook, which left a privacy setting active for years that didn't actually do anything.
Businesses and government have been urged to keep there network security up to date following a warning from US and UK authorities about the risk of cyber attack from hackers backed by Russia. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the UK's National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) issued an alert over exploits in routers and other internet connected devices used in homes, small businesses and large organisations which are said to be vulnerable to cyber attacks. The hacking campaign includes breaking into routers and other network devices to carry out man-in-the-middle attacks to support cyber espionage, steal intellectual property and maintain persistent access in victim networks for use in additional attacks. A technical alert by the NCSC - the cyber arm of GCHQ - warns that systems including Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) enabled Devices, Cisco Smart Install (SMI) enabled devices and those using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) are all vulnerable to exploits. Millions of these devices around the world are said to have been compromised, with inherently poor security and poor default passwords exploited by the attackers.