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The entire universe may once have been spinning all over the place

New Scientist

The early universe may have been spinning, leaving a trace that is still visible in the skies today. Lior Shamir at Kansas State University and his colleagues used three of the world's most powerful observatories – the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and the Hubble Space Telescope – to find the spin direction of more than 200,000 spiral galaxies across the sky. Based on most modern models of cosmology, we would expect there to be an equal number of galaxies spinning clockwise and counterclockwise. But when they looked at the data from each of the three observatories, the researchers found an unexpected imbalance in this figure. "The difference is not huge, just about over two per cent, but with that high a number of galaxies the probability to have such a division by chance is less than one in a million," Shamir said at a press conference during a virtual meeting of the American Astronomical Society on 1 June.


Face recognition for galaxies: Artificial intelligence brings new tools to astronomy

#artificialintelligence

A machine learning method called "deep learning," which has been widely used in face recognition and other image- and speech-recognition applications, has shown promise in helping astronomers analyze images of galaxies and understand how they form and evolve. In a new study, accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal and available online, researchers used computer simulations of galaxy formation to train a deep learning algorithm, which then proved surprisingly good at analyzing images of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. The researchers used output from the simulations to generate mock images of simulated galaxies as they would look in observations by the Hubble Space Telescope. The mock images were used to train the deep learning system to recognize three key phases of galaxy evolution previously identified in the simulations. The researchers then gave the system a large set of actual Hubble images to classify.


Face recognition for galaxies: Artificial intelligence brings new tools to astronomy

#artificialintelligence

A machine learning method called "deep learning," which has been widely used in face recognition and other image- and speech-recognition applications, has shown promise in helping astronomers analyze images of galaxies and understand how they form and evolve. In a new study, accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal and available online, researchers used computer simulations of galaxy formation to train a deep learning algorithm, which then proved surprisingly good at analyzing images of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. The researchers used output from the simulations to generate mock images of simulated galaxies as they would look in observations by the Hubble Space Telescope. The mock images were used to train the deep learning system to recognize three key phases of galaxy evolution previously identified in the simulations. The researchers then gave the system a large set of actual Hubble images to classify.


Artificial Intelligence Brings New Tools to Astronomy

#artificialintelligence

A machine learning method called "deep learning," which has been widely used in face recognition and other image- and speech-recognition applications, has shown promise in helping astronomers analyze images of galaxies and understand how they form and evolve. In a new study, accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal and available online, researchers used computer simulations of galaxy formation to train a deep learning algorithm, which then proved surprisingly good at analyzing images of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. The researchers used output from the simulations to generate mock images of simulated galaxies as they would look in observations by the Hubble Space Telescope. The mock images were used to train the deep learning system to recognize three key phases of galaxy evolution previously identified in the simulations. The researchers then gave the system a large set of actual Hubble images to classify.


"The 'AI' Cosmos" --Intelligent Algorithms Begin Processing the Universe

#artificialintelligence

This June, 2020, NASA announced that intelligent computer systems will be installed on space probes to direct the search for life on distant planets and moons, starting with the 2022/23 ESA ExoMars mission, before moving beyond to moons such as Jupiter's Europa, and of Saturn's Enceladus and Titan. "This is a visionary step in space exploration." said NASA researcher Victoria Da Poian. "It means that over time we'll have moved from the idea that humans are involved with nearly everything in space, to the idea that computers are equipped with intelligent systems, and they are trained to make some decisions and are able to transmit in priority the most interesting or time-critical information". "When first gathered, the data produced by the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) toaster-sized life-searching instrument will not shout out'I've found life here', but will give us probabilities which will need to be analyzed," says Eric Lyness, software lead in the Planetary Environments Lab at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. "We'll still need humans to interpret the findings, but the first filter will be the AI system".