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Permutation Invariant Graph Generation via Score-Based Generative Modeling

#artificialintelligence

Learning generative models for graph-structured data is challenging because graphs are discrete, combinatorial, and the underlying data distribution is invariant to the ordering of nodes. However, most of the existing generative models for graphs are not invariant to the chosen ordering, which might lead to an undesirable bias in the learned distribution. To address this difficulty, we propose a permutation invariant approach to modeling graphs, using the recent framework of score-based generative modeling. In particular, we design a permutation equivariant, multi-channel graph neural network to model the gradient of the data distribution at the input graph (a.k.a., the score function). This permutation equivariant model of gradients implicitly defines a permutation invariant distribution for graphs. We train this graph neural network with score matching and sample from it with annealed Langevin dynamics. In our experiments, we first demonstrate the capacity of this new architecture in learning discrete graph algorithms. For graph generation, we find that our learning approach achieves better or comparable results to existing models on benchmark datasets.


On tuning consistent annealed sampling for denoising score matching

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Score-based generative models provide state-of-the-art quality for image and audio synthesis. Sampling from these models is performed iteratively, typically employing a discretized series of noise levels and a predefined scheme. In this note, we first overview three common sampling schemes for models trained with denoising score matching. Next, we focus on one of them, consistent annealed sampling, and study its hyper-parameter boundaries. We then highlight a possible formulation of such hyper-parameter that explicitly considers those boundaries and facilitates tuning when using few or a variable number of steps. Finally, we highlight some connections of the formulation with other sampling schemes.


Globally optimal score-based learning of directed acyclic graphs in high-dimensions

Neural Information Processing Systems

We prove that $\Omega(s\log p)$ samples suffice to learn a sparse Gaussian directed acyclic graph (DAG) from data, where $s$ is the maximum Markov blanket size. This improves upon recent results that require $\Omega(s {4}\log p)$ samples in the equal variance case. To prove this, we analyze a popular score-based estimator that has been the subject of extensive empirical inquiry in recent years and is known to achieve state-of-the-art results. Furthermore, the approach we study does not require strong assumptions such as faithfulness that existing theory for score-based learning crucially relies on. The resulting estimator is based around a difficult nonconvex optimization problem, and its analysis may be of independent interest given recent interest in nonconvex optimization in machine learning.


Score-Based Generative Classifiers

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The tremendous success of generative models in recent years raises the question whether they can also be used to perform classification. Generative models have been used as adversarially robust classifiers on simple datasets such as MNIST, but this robustness has not been observed on more complex datasets like CIFAR-10. Additionally, on natural image datasets, previous results have suggested a trade-off between the likelihood of the data and classification accuracy. In this work, we investigate score-based generative models as classifiers for natural images. We show that these models not only obtain competitive likelihood values but simultaneously achieve state-of-the-art classification accuracy for generative classifiers on CIFAR-10. Nevertheless, we find that these models are only slightly, if at all, more robust than discriminative baseline models on out-of-distribution tasks based on common image corruptions. Similarly and contrary to prior results, we find that score-based are prone to worst-case distribution shifts in the form of adversarial perturbations. Our work highlights that score-based generative models are closing the gap in classification accuracy compared to standard discriminative models. While they do not yet deliver on the promise of adversarial and out-of-domain robustness, they provide a different approach to classification that warrants further research.


DAMSL: Domain Agnostic Meta Score-based Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose Domain Agnostic Meta Score-based Learning (DAMSL), a novel, versatile and highly effective solution that delivers significant out-performance over state-of-the-art methods for cross-domain few-shot learning. We identify key problems in previous meta-learning methods over-fitting to the source domain, and previous transfer-learning methods under-utilizing the structure of the support set. The core idea behind our method is that instead of directly using the scores from a fine-tuned feature encoder, we use these scores to create input coordinates for a domain agnostic metric space. A graph neural network is applied to learn an embedding and relation function over these coordinates to process all information contained in the score distribution of the support set. We test our model on both established CD-FSL benchmarks and new domains and show that our method overcomes the limitations of previous meta-learning and transfer-learning methods to deliver substantial improvements in accuracy across both smaller and larger domain shifts.