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Applications of Deep Learning and Reinforcement Learning to Biological Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Rapid advances of hardware-based technologies during the past decades have opened up new possibilities for Life scientists to gather multimodal data in various application domains (e.g., Omics, Bioimaging, Medical Imaging, and [Brain/Body]-Machine Interfaces), thus generating novel opportunities for development of dedicated data intensive machine learning techniques. Overall, recent research in Deep learning (DL), Reinforcement learning (RL), and their combination (Deep RL) promise to revolutionize Artificial Intelligence. The growth in computational power accompanied by faster and increased data storage and declining computing costs have already allowed scientists in various fields to apply these techniques on datasets that were previously intractable for their size and complexity. This review article provides a comprehensive survey on the application of DL, RL, and Deep RL techniques in mining Biological data. In addition, we compare performances of DL techniques when applied to different datasets across various application domains. Finally, we outline open issues in this challenging research area and discuss future development perspectives.



Machine Learning, Big Data, And Smart Buildings: A Comprehensive Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Future buildings will offer new convenience, comfort, and efficiency possibilities to their residents. Changes will occur to the way people live as technology involves into people's lives and information processing is fully integrated into their daily living activities and objects. The future expectation of smart buildings includes making the residents' experience as easy and comfortable as possible. The massive streaming data generated and captured by smart building appliances and devices contains valuable information that needs to be mined to facilitate timely actions and better decision making. Machine learning and big data analytics will undoubtedly play a critical role to enable the delivery of such smart services. In this paper, we survey the area of smart building with a special focus on the role of techniques from machine learning and big data analytics. This survey also reviews the current trends and challenges faced in the development of smart building services.


Broad Learning for Healthcare

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A broad spectrum of data from different modalities are generated in the healthcare domain every day, including scalar data (e.g., clinical measures collected at hospitals), tensor data (e.g., neuroimages analyzed by research institutes), graph data (e.g., brain connectivity networks), and sequence data (e.g., digital footprints recorded on smart sensors). Capability for modeling information from these heterogeneous data sources is potentially transformative for investigating disease mechanisms and for informing therapeutic interventions. Our works in this thesis attempt to facilitate healthcare applications in the setting of broad learning which focuses on fusing heterogeneous data sources for a variety of synergistic knowledge discovery and machine learning tasks. We are generally interested in computer-aided diagnosis, precision medicine, and mobile health by creating accurate user profiles which include important biomarkers, brain connectivity patterns, and latent representations. In particular, our works involve four different data mining problems with application to the healthcare domain: multi-view feature selection, subgraph pattern mining, brain network embedding, and multi-view sequence prediction.


DeepHealth: Deep Learning for Health Informatics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning and deep learning have provided us with an exploration of a whole new research era. As more data and better computational power become available, they have been implemented in various fields. The demand for artificial intelligence in the field of health informatics is also increasing and we can expect to see the potential benefits of artificial intelligence applications in healthcare. Deep learning can help clinicians diagnose disease, identify cancer sites, identify drug effects for each patient, understand the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes, explore new phenotypes, and predict infectious disease outbreaks with high accuracy. In contrast to traditional models, its approach does not require domain-specific data pre-process, and it is expected that it will ultimately change human life a lot in the future. Despite its notable advantages, there are some challenges on data (high dimensionality, heterogeneity, time dependency, sparsity, irregularity, lack of label) and model (reliability, interpretability, feasibility, security, scalability) for practical use. This article presents a comprehensive review of research applying deep learning in health informatics with a focus on the last five years in the fields of medical imaging, electronic health records, genomics, sensing, and online communication health, as well as challenges and promising directions for future research. We highlight ongoing popular approaches' research and identify several challenges in building deep learning models.