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Nobel laureate Ohsumi urges youth to ask fundamental questions, however 'naive'

The Japan Times

STOCKHOLM – Japanese scientist Yoshinori Ohsumi, who won this year's Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his study on cell recycling, encouraged young people Wednesday to pursue fundamental questions, however "naive" they may appear. The 71-year-old honorary professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology made the remarks at a news conference at the Karolinska Institute, home of the Nobel Assembly, ahead of the prize award ceremony. He also said he is nervous about the series of events that await him in the days ahead, culminating in the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony on Saturday, but added he is looking forward to them. Ohsumi was awarded the Nobel prize for elucidating "autophagy," an intracellular process that degrades and recycles proteins. His discoveries are believed to have opened up the possibility of new treatments for illnesses including cancer and Parkinson's disease.

Three economists who study poverty win Nobel Prize in economics

The Japan Times

STOCKHOLM – Two researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a third from Harvard University won the 2019 Nobel Prize in economics on Monday for groundbreaking research into what works and what doesn't in the fight to reduce global poverty. The 46-year-old Duflo is the youngest person ever to win the prize and only the second woman, after Elinor Ostrom in 2009. The three winners, who have worked together, revolutionized developmental economics by pioneering field experiments that generate practical insights into how poor people respond to education, health care and other programs meant to lift them out of poverty. "Without spending some time understanding the intricacies of the lives of the poor and why they make the choices they make … it is impossible to design the right approach," Duflo told a news conference held by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awarded the prize. Their work in rural Kenya and in India, for instance, found that providing more textbooks, school meals and teachers didn't do much to help students learn more.

Yoshinori Ohsumi scoops the 2016 Nobel Prize in medicine

Daily Mail - Science & tech

The Nobel Assembly at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute has announced the first of this year's Nobel Prizes: the award in medicine or physiology. It was awarded to Japanese biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi for his work exploring autophagy - the process by which cells recycle their own contents. Professor Ohsumi, a researcher at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, is the sixth Nobel laureate from Japan to win the accolade in the field of medicine. The Nobel committee has awarded this year's Prize in Medicine or Physiology to Japanese cell biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi (pictured) Commenting on winning the award, Professor Ohsumi said: 'I was surprised. Autophagy - which comes from the Greek meaning'self-eating' - is the process by which cells effectively eat their own contents, breaking them down into their building blocks so they can be used elsewhere.

Japanese professor Tasuku Honjo wins Nobel in medicine, together with U.S. scientist, for work on cancer therapy

The Japan Times

STOCKHOLM – Japanese scientist Tasuku Honjo was awarded on Monday this year's Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, for his discovery of a protein that contributed to the development of an immunotherapeutic drug against cancer. Honjo, a 76-year-old professor at Kyoto University, won the prize with U.S. national James Allison, the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute said. Honjo opened a pathway for a new cancer treatment by discovering the PD-1 protein, which is responsible for suppressing immune response. "I'm very honored and pleased to receive the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine," Honjo told a news conference following the announcement. His method of treating cancer -- by controlling the protein's function to suppress immunity -- led to the development of Nivolumab, a drug marketed as Opdivo and used against lung cancer and melanoma.

Nobel winner Tasuku Honjo sees bigger role for immunotherapy in battling cancer

The Japan Times

STOCKHOLM – Japanese scientist Tasuku Honjo, who jointly won this year's Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research on the immune system that contributed to cancer treatments, said Thursday that he believes most cancers will become treatable with immunotherapy by 2050. The 76-year-old professor and deputy director-general at the Kyoto University Institute for Advanced Study spoke at a news conference at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, joined by American scientist James Allison, who shared the prize. The discovery by Honjo and Allison -- on methods to inhibit negative immune regulation -- established a new principle for cancer treatment that stimulates the inherent ability of the human immune system to unleash attacks on tumor cells, according to the Nobel Assembly. Honjo said it may become possible to contain the growth of most cancer cells through such treatment, even if cancer cannot be completely eliminated, as he discussed the effectiveness of combination therapy using drugs in the development of which he and Allison were involved. The Kyoto native and his team discovered PD-1, a protein on immune cells that operates as a brake on the immune system.