There is no greater challenge for healthcare and life science organizations than ensuring that their digital transformation along with better data management will improve patient outcomes, increase operational efficiency and productivity, and better financial results. The drivers of healthcare and life science's transition from data rich to data driven are not new and include the race to manage cost and improve quality. Some new drivers include the growth of at risk contracting for providers, the threat of care delivery disruption by the retail industry and the impact of drug discovery in the challenge to balance speed to market with costs. Health and life science industries are data rich. IDC estimates that on average, approximately 270 GB of healthcare and life science data will be created for every person in the world in 2020. Transformation of data into insights creates the value for health and life science organizations coupled with organizations establishing a data driven culture.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: I have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: EV has received speaking fees from SwissRe, Novartis R&D Academy, and Google Netherlands. IGC served as a consultant for Otsuka Pharmaceuticals advising on the use of digital medicine for its Abilify MyCite product. IGC is supported by the Collaborative Research Program for Biomedical Innovation Law, which is a scientifically independent collaborative research program supported by Novo Nordisk Foundation.
Machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other modern statistical methods are providing new opportunities to operationalise previously untapped and rapidly growing sources of data for patient benefit. Despite much promising research currently being undertaken, particularly in imaging, the literature as a whole lacks transparency, clear reporting to facilitate replicability, exploration for potential ethical concerns, and clear demonstrations of effectiveness. Among the many reasons why these problems exist, one of the most important (for which we provide a preliminary solution here) is the current lack of best practice guidance specific to machine learning and artificial intelligence. However, we believe that interdisciplinary groups pursuing research and impact projects involving machine learning and artificial intelligence for health would benefit from explicitly addressing a series of questions concerning transparency, reproducibility, ethics, and effectiveness (TREE). The 20 critical questions proposed here provide a framework for research groups to inform the design, conduct, and reporting; for editors and peer reviewers to evaluate contributions to the literature; and for patients, clinicians and policy makers to critically appraise where new findings may deliver patient benefit. Machine learning (ML), artificial intelligence (AI), and other modern statistical methods are providing new opportunities to operationalise previously untapped and rapidly growing sources of data for patient benefit. The potential uses include improving diagnostic accuracy,1 more reliably predicting prognosis,2 targeting treatments,3 and increasing the operational efficiency of health systems.4 Examples of potentially disruptive technology with early promise include image based diagnostic applications of ML/AI, which have shown the most early clinical promise (eg, deep learning based algorithms improving accuracy in diagnosing retinal pathology compared with that of specialist physicians5), or natural language processing used as a tool to extract information from structured and unstructured (that is, free) text embedded in electronic health records.2 Although we are only just …
It is going to be interesting to see how society deals with artificial intelligence, but it will definitely be cool. Artificial intelligence (AI) can be defined to mean the use of intelligent machines to replicate and augment the intelligence of human beings. The Turing test was propounded to show what factors determine whether a machine operates on artificial intelligence or not. AI applications are being used in various fields such as telecommunication, banking, agriculture, manufacturing, health care, and transportation. The implementation of AI in health care aims to enhance the lives of the patients and enable physicians, doctors, hospitals, and administrators to improve health care delivery in a cost-effective and time-efficient manner. The traditional drug industry is also experiencing a wave of change due to the implementation of AI-based processes in drug discovery and development. Substitution of AI technology-based solutions in place of the traditional methods for drug discovery is expected to reduce the time for drug development. Using AI in clinical trials has reduced the time required for drug trials from 4–6 months to three months. After the analysis of the genomic data from different patients, AI helps by selecting only those patients whose genetic profile suggests it will help them to undergo testing in the clinical trial.2 Machine learning technologies, deep learning algorithms, various neural networks (such as artificial neural networks or computational neural networks), and content screening are a few examples of AI that have brought radical changes to the process of drug discovery and development.
Artificial intelligence has the potential to transform health care. It can enable health care professionals to analyze health data quickly and precisely, and lead to better detection, treatment, and prevention of a multitude of physical and mental health issues. Artificial intelligence integrated with virtual care -- telemedicine and digital health -- interventions are playing a vital role in responding to Covid-19. Penn Medicine, for example, has designed a Covid-19 chatbot to stratify patients and facilitate triage. Penn is also using machine learning to identify patients at risk for sepsis.