Explain Like I am 5. It is the basic tenets of learning for me where I try to distill any concept in a more palatable form. I couldn't reduce it to the freshman level. That means we don't really understand it. So, when I saw the ELI5 library that aims to interpret machine learning models, I just had to try it out.
With the advents of deep learning, improved image classification with complex discriminative models has been made possible. However, such deep models with increased complexity require a huge set of labeled samples to generalize the training. Such classification models can easily overfit when applied for medical images because of limited training data, which is a common problem in the field of medical image analysis. This paper proposes and investigates a reinforced classifier for improving the generalization under a few available training data. Partially following the idea of reinforcement learning, the proposed classifier uses a generalization-feedback from a subset of the training data to update its parameter instead of only using the conventional cross-entropy loss about the training data. We evaluate the improvement of the proposed classifier by applying it on three different classification problems against the standard deep classifiers equipped with existing overfitting-prevention techniques. Besides an overall improvement in classification performance, the proposed classifier showed remarkable characteristics of generalized learning, which can have great potential in medical classification tasks.
Viral sequence classification is an important task in pathogen detection, epidemiological surveys and evolutionary studies. Statistical learning methods are widely used to classify and identify viral sequences in samples from environments. These methods face several challenges associated with the nature and properties of viral genomes such as recombination, mutation rate and diversity. Also, new generations of sequencing technologies rise other difficulties by generating massive amounts of fragmented sequences. While linear classifiers are often used to classify viruses, there is a lack of exploration of the accuracy space of existing models in the context of alignment free approaches. In this study, we present an exhaustive assessment procedure exploring the power of linear classifiers in genotyping and subtyping partial and complete genomes. It is applied to the Hepatitis C viruses (HCV). Several variables are considered in this investigation such as classifier types (generative and discriminative) and their hyper-parameters (smoothing value and penalty function), the classification task (genotyping and subtyping), the length of the tested sequences (partial and complete) and the length of k-mer words. Overall, several classifiers perform well given a set of precise combination of the experimental variables mentioned above. Finally, we provide the procedure and benchmark data to allow for more robust assessment of classification from virus genomes.
Transfer learning has revolutionized computer vision, but existing approaches in NLP still require task-specific modifications and training from scratch. We propose Fine-tuned Language Models (FitLaM), an effective transfer learning method that can be applied to any task in NLP, and introduce techniques that are key for fine-tuning a state-of-the-art language model. Our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art on five text classification tasks, reducing the error by 18-24% on the majority of datasets. We open-source our pretrained models and code to enable adoption by the community.
Despite the recent success of deep transfer learning approaches in NLP, there is a lack of quantitative studies demonstrating the gains these models offer in low-shot text classification tasks over existing paradigms. Deep transfer learning approaches such as BERT and ULMFiT demonstrate that they can beat state-of-the-art results on larger datasets, however when one has only 100-1000 labelled examples per class, the choice of approach is less clear, with classical machine learning and deep transfer learning representing valid options. This paper compares the current best transfer learning approach with top classical machine learning approaches on a trinary sentiment classification task to assess the best paradigm. We find that BERT, representing the best of deep transfer learning, is the best performing approach, outperforming top classical machine learning algorithms by 9.7% on average when trained with 100 examples per class, narrowing to 1.8% at 1000 labels per class. We also show the robustness of deep transfer learning in moving across domains, where the maximum loss in accuracy is only 0.7% in similar domain tasks and 3.2% cross domain, compared to classical machine learning which loses up to 20.6%.