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Reinforcing Medical Image Classifier to Improve Generalization on Small Datasets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With the advents of deep learning, improved image classification with complex discriminative models has been made possible. However, such deep models with increased complexity require a huge set of labeled samples to generalize the training. Such classification models can easily overfit when applied for medical images because of limited training data, which is a common problem in the field of medical image analysis. This paper proposes and investigates a reinforced classifier for improving the generalization under a few available training data. Partially following the idea of reinforcement learning, the proposed classifier uses a generalization-feedback from a subset of the training data to update its parameter instead of only using the conventional cross-entropy loss about the training data. We evaluate the improvement of the proposed classifier by applying it on three different classification problems against the standard deep classifiers equipped with existing overfitting-prevention techniques. Besides an overall improvement in classification performance, the proposed classifier showed remarkable characteristics of generalized learning, which can have great potential in medical classification tasks.


Do we still need fuzzy classifiers for Small Data in the Era of Big Data?

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The Era of Big Data has forced researchers to explore new distributed solutions for building fuzzy classifiers, which often introduce approximation errors or make strong assumptions to reduce computational and memory requirements. As a result, Big Data classifiers might be expected to be inferior to those designed for standard classification tasks (Small Data) in terms of accuracy and model complexity. To our knowledge, however, there is no empirical evidence to confirm such a conjecture yet. Here, we investigate the extent to which state-of-the-art fuzzy classifiers for Big Data sacrifice performance in favor of scalability. To this end, we carry out an empirical study that compares these classifiers with some of the best performing algorithms for Small Data. Assuming the latter were generally designed for maximizing performance without considering scalability issues, the results of this study provide some intuition around the tradeoff between performance and scalability achieved by current Big Data solutions. Our findings show that, although slightly inferior, Big Data classifiers are gradually catching up with state-of-the-art classifiers for Small data, suggesting that a unified learning algorithm for Big and Small Data might be possible.


An Effective Label Noise Model for DNN Text Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Because large, human-annotated datasets suffer from labeling errors, it is crucial to be able to train deep neural networks in the presence of label noise. While training image classification models with label noise have received much attention, training text classification models have not. In this paper, we propose an approach to training deep networks that is robust to label noise. This approach introduces a non-linear processing layer (noise model) that models the statistics of the label noise into a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture. The noise model and the CNN weights are learned jointly from noisy training data, which prevents the model from overfitting to erroneous labels. Through extensive experiments on several text classification datasets, we show that this approach enables the CNN to learn better sentence representations and is robust even to extreme label noise. We find that proper initialization and regularization of this noise model is critical. Further, by contrast to results focusing on large batch sizes for mitigating label noise for image classification, we find that altering the batch size does not have much effect on classification performance.


Adversarial Attacks on Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Time series classification models have been garnering significant importance in the research community. However, not much research has been done on generating adversarial samples for these models. These adversarial samples can become a security concern. In this paper, we propose utilizing an adversarial transformation network (ATN) on a distilled model to attack various time series classification models. The proposed attack on the classification model utilizes a distilled model as a surrogate that mimics the behavior of the attacked classical time series classification models. Our proposed methodology is applied onto 1-Nearest Neighbor Dynamic Time Warping (1-NN ) DTW, a Fully Connected Network and a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN), all of which are trained on 42 University of California Riverside (UCR) datasets. In this paper, we show both models were susceptible to attacks on all 42 datasets. To the best of our knowledge, such an attack on time series classification models has never been done before. Finally, we recommend future researchers that develop time series classification models to incorporating adversarial data samples into their training data sets to improve resilience on adversarial samples and to consider model robustness as an evaluative metric.


Learning from Small Data Through Sampling an Implicit Conditional Generative Latent Optimization Model

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We revisit the long-standing problem of \emph{learning from small sample}. In recent years major efforts have been invested into the generation of new samples from a small set of training data points. Some use classical transformations, others synthesize new examples. Our approach belongs to the second one. We propose a new model based on conditional Generative Latent Optimization (cGLO). Our model learns to synthesize completely new samples for every class just by interpolating between samples in the latent space. The proposed method samples the learned latent space using spherical interpolations (\emph{slerp}) and generates a new sample using the trained generator. Our empirical results show that the new sampled set is diverse enough, leading to improvement in image classification in comparison to the state of the art, when trained on small samples of CIFAR-100 and CUB-200.