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A Bayesian Long Short-Term Memory Model for Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall Joint Forecasting

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) are widely used in the financial sector to measure the market risk and manage the extreme market movement. The recent link between the quantile score function and the Asymmetric Laplace density has led to a flexible likelihood-based framework for joint modelling of VaR and ES. It is of high interest in financial applications to be able to capture the underlying joint dynamics of these two quantities. We address this problem by developing a hybrid model that is based on the Asymmetric Laplace quasi-likelihood and employs the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) time series modelling technique from Machine Learning to capture efficiently the underlying dynamics of VaR and ES. We refer to this model as LSTM-AL. We adopt the adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for Bayesian inference in the LSTM-AL model. Empirical results show that the proposed LSTM-AL model can improve the VaR and ES forecasting accuracy over a range of well-established competing models.


Deep Hedging: Learning to Simulate Equity Option Markets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We construct realistic equity option market simulators based on generative adversarial networks (GANs). We consider recurrent and temporal convolutional architectures, and assess the impact of state compression. Option market simulators are highly relevant because they allow us to extend the limited real-world data sets available for the training and evaluation of option trading strategies. We show that network-based generators outperform classical methods on a range of benchmark metrics, and adversarial training achieves the best performance. Our work demonstrates for the first time that GANs can be successfully applied to the task of generating multivariate financial time series.


Deep Smoothing of the Implied Volatility Surface

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present an artificial neural network (ANN) approach to value financial derivatives. Atypically to standard ANN applications, practitioners equally use option pricing models to validate market prices and to infer unobserved prices. Importantly, models need to generate realistic arbitrage-free prices, meaning that no option portfolio can lead to risk-free profits. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is guaranteed by penalizing the loss using soft constraints on an extended grid of input values. ANNs can be pre-trained by first calibrating a standard option pricing model, and then training an ANN to a larger synthetic dataset generated from the calibrated model. The parameters transfer as well as the non-arbitrage constraints appear to be particularly useful when only sparse or erroneous data are available. We also explore how deeper ANNs improve over shallower ones, as well as other properties of the network architecture. We benchmark our method against standard option pricing models, such as Heston with and without jumps. We validate our method both on training sets, and testing sets, namely, highlighting both their capacity to reproduce observed prices and predict new ones.


Neural networks for option pricing and hedging: a literature review

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This work provides a review of this literature. The motivation for this summary arose from our companion paper Ruf and W ang [2019]. There we continue th e discussions of this note; in particular, of potentially problematic data leakage when training ANNs to historic financial data. This paper is organised in the following way. Section 2 featu res Table 1, a summary of the literature that concerns the use of ANNs for nonparametric pricing (and hedging) of options. Section 3 provides a list of recommended papers from Table 1. Section 4 provides a n overview of related work where ANNs are applied in the context of option pricing and hedging, but not necessarily as nonparametric estimation tools. Section 5 briefly discusses various regularisation techniq ues used in the reviewed literature.


Exploring the predictability of range-based volatility estimators using RNNs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We investigate the predictability of several range-based stock volatility estimators, and compare them to the standard close-to-close estimator which is most commonly acknowledged as the volatility. The patterns of volatility changes are analyzed using LSTM recurrent neural networks, which are a state of the art method of sequence learning. We implement the analysis on all current constituents of the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, and report averaged evaluation results. We find that changes in the values of range-based estimators are more predictable than that of the estimator using daily closing values only.