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A high-bias, low-variance introduction to Machine Learning for physicists

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine Learning (ML) is one of the most exciting and dynamic areas of modern research and application. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the core concepts and tools of machine learning in a manner easily understood and intuitive to physicists. The review begins by covering fundamental concepts in ML and modern statistics such as the bias-variance tradeoff, overfitting, regularization, and generalization before moving on to more advanced topics in both supervised and unsupervised learning. Topics covered in the review include ensemble models, deep learning and neural networks, clustering and data visualization, energy-based models (including MaxEnt models and Restricted Boltzmann Machines), and variational methods. Throughout, we emphasize the many natural connections between ML and statistical physics. A notable aspect of the review is the use of Python notebooks to introduce modern ML/statistical packages to readers using physics-inspired datasets (the Ising Model and Monte-Carlo simulations of supersymmetric decays of proton-proton collisions). We conclude with an extended outlook discussing possible uses of machine learning for furthering our understanding of the physical world as well as open problems in ML where physicists maybe able to contribute. (Notebooks are available at https://physics.bu.edu/~pankajm/MLnotebooks.html )


Reasoning-Driven Question-Answering for Natural Language Understanding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Natural language understanding (NLU) of text is a fundamental challenge in AI, and it has received significant attention throughout the history of NLP research. This primary goal has been studied under different tasks, such as Question Answering (QA) and Textual Entailment (TE). In this thesis, we investigate the NLU problem through the QA task and focus on the aspects that make it a challenge for the current state-of-the-art technology. This thesis is organized into three main parts: In the first part, we explore multiple formalisms to improve existing machine comprehension systems. We propose a formulation for abductive reasoning in natural language and show its effectiveness, especially in domains with limited training data. Additionally, to help reasoning systems cope with irrelevant or redundant information, we create a supervised approach to learn and detect the essential terms in questions. In the second part, we propose two new challenge datasets. In particular, we create two datasets of natural language questions where (i) the first one requires reasoning over multiple sentences; (ii) the second one requires temporal common sense reasoning. We hope that the two proposed datasets will motivate the field to address more complex problems. In the final part, we present the first formal framework for multi-step reasoning algorithms, in the presence of a few important properties of language use, such as incompleteness, ambiguity, etc. We apply this framework to prove fundamental limitations for reasoning algorithms. These theoretical results provide extra intuition into the existing empirical evidence in the field.


Practical Machine Learning Tutorial with Python Intro p.1

#artificialintelligence

The objective of this course is to give you a wholistic understanding of machine learning, covering theory, application, and inner workings of supervised, unsupervised, and deep learning algorithms. In this series, we'll be covering linear regression, K Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines (SVM), flat clustering, hierarchical clustering, and neural networks. For each major algorithm that we cover, we will discuss the high level intuitions of the algorithms and how they are logically meant to work. Next, we'll apply the algorithms in code using real world data sets along with a module, such as with Scikit-Learn. Finally, we'll be diving into the inner workings of each of the algorithms by recreating them in code, from scratch, ourselves, including all of the math involved.


TOP 20 Machine Learning Course on Mighty Machine Learning Bundle Deals

#artificialintelligence

In this python machine learning course, learn both supervised and unsupervised learning in python from scratch. Enroll in this course and boost your career now In this age of big data, companies across the globe use Python to sift through the avalanche of information at their disposal. By becoming proficient in unsupervised & supervised learning in Python, you can give your company a competitive edge - and boost your career to the next level.


Extending Machine Learning Algorithms Udemy

@machinelearnbot

Complex statistics in Machine Learning worry a lot of developers. Knowing statistics helps you build strong Machine Learning models that are optimized for a given problem statement. Understand the real-world examples that discuss the statistical side of Machine Learning and familiarize yourself with it. We will use libraries such as scikit-learn, e1071, randomForest, c50, xgboost, and so on.We will discuss the application of frequently used algorithms on various domain problems, using both Python and R programming.It focuses on the various tree-based machine learning models used by industry practitioners.We will also discuss k-nearest neighbors, Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine and recommendation engine.By the end of the course, you will have mastered the required statistics for Machine Learning Algorithm and will be able to apply your new skills to any sort of industry problem. Pratap Dangeti develops machine learning and deep learning solutions for structured, image, and text data at TCS, in its research and innovation lab in Bangalore.