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Analyzing Hidden Representations in End-to-End Automatic Speech Recognition Systems

Neural Information Processing Systems

Neural networks have become ubiquitous in automatic speech recognition systems. While neural networks are typically used as acoustic models in more complex systems, recent studies have explored end-to-end speech recognition systems based on neural networks, which can be trained to directly predict text from input acoustic features. Although such systems are conceptually elegant and simpler than traditional systems, it is less obvious how to interpret the trained models. In this work, we analyze the speech representations learned by a deep end-to-end model that is based on convolutional and recurrent layers, and trained with a connectionist temporal classification (CTC) loss. We use a pre-trained model to generate frame-level features which are given to a classifier that is trained on frame classification into phones.


Analyzing Hidden Representations in End-to-End Automatic Speech Recognition Systems

Neural Information Processing Systems

Neural networks have become ubiquitous in automatic speech recognition systems. While neural networks are typically used as acoustic models in more complex systems, recent studies have explored end-to-end speech recognition systems based on neural networks, which can be trained to directly predict text from input acoustic features. Although such systems are conceptually elegant and simpler than traditional systems, it is less obvious how to interpret the trained models. In this work, we analyze the speech representations learned by a deep end-to-end model that is based on convolutional and recurrent layers, and trained with a connectionist temporal classification (CTC) loss. We use a pre-trained model to generate frame-level features which are given to a classifier that is trained on frame classification into phones. We evaluate representations from different layers of the deep model and compare their quality for predicting phone labels. Our experiments shed light on important aspects of the end-to-end model such as layer depth, model complexity, and other design choices.


End-to-end speech recognition with neon - Nervana

#artificialintelligence

Thus, given a sequence of frames corresponding to an utterance, the model is required to produce, for each frame, a probability distribution over the alphabet. During the training phase, the softmax outputs are fed into a CTC cost function (more on this shortly) which uses the actual transcripts to (i) score the model's predictions, and (ii) generate an error signal quantifying the accuracy of the model's predictions. The overall goal is to train the model to increase the overall score of its predictions relative to the actual transcripts. Training Empirically, we have found that using stochastic gradient descent with momentum paired with gradient clipping leads to the best performing models. Deeper networks (seven layers or more) also tend to perform better in general.


Investigating context features hidden in End-to-End TTS

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent studies have introduced end-to-end TTS, which integrates the production of context and acoustic features in statistical parametric speech synthesis. As a result, a single neural network replaced laborious feature engineering with automated feature learning. However, little is known about what types of context information end-to-end TTS extracts from text input before synthesizing speech, and the previous knowledge about context features is barely utilized. In this work, we first point out the model similarity between end-to-end TTS and parametric TTS. Based on the similarity, we evaluate the quality of encoder outputs from an end-to-end TTS system against eight criteria that are derived from a standard set of context information used in parametric TTS. We conduct experiments using an evaluation procedure that has been newly developed in the machine learning literature for quantitative analysis of neural representations, while adapting it to the TTS domain. Experimental results show that the encoder outputs reflect both linguistic and phonetic contexts, such as vowel reduction at phoneme level, lexical stress at syllable level, and part-of-speech at word level, possibly due to the joint optimization of context and acoustic features.


Utilizing Domain Knowledge in End-to-End Audio Processing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

End-to-end neural network based approaches to audio modelling are generally outperformed by models trained on high-level data representations. In this paper we present preliminary work that shows the feasibility of training the first layers of a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to learn the commonly-used log-scaled mel-spectrogram transformation. Secondly, we demonstrate that upon initializing the first layers of an end-to-end CNN classifier with the learned transformation, convergence and performance on the ESC-50 environmental sound classification dataset are similar to a CNN-based model trained on the highly pre-processed log-scaled mel-spectrogram features.