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Infinite Relational Modeling of Functional Connectivity in Resting State fMRI

Neural Information Processing Systems

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be applied to study the functional connectivity of the neural elements which form complex network at a whole brain level. Most analyses of functional resting state networks (RSN) have been based on the analysis of correlation between the temporal dynamics of various regions of the brain. While these models can identify coherently behaving groups in terms of correlation they give little insight into how these groups interact. In this paper we take a different view on the analysis of functional resting state networks. Starting from the definition of resting state as functional coherent groups we search for functional units of the brain that communicate with other parts of the brain in a coherent manner as measured by mutual information.


Brain Functional State Analysis of Mindfulness Using Graph Theory and Functional Connectivity

AAAI Conferences

We human beings spend about fifty percent of the time of our waking hours without any awareness what we are doing now. It is said that such a mind wandering affects happiness. To overcome this issue, mindfulness meditation paying attention to one's experience in an accepting and nonjudgmental way is getting popular. In spite of its popularity, meditation needs a lot of practice until we can experience its benefit. A key to a good practice of the meditation is quality evaluation and feedback of it. In this paper, we proposed a novel feature extraction method to define the meditation state. We measured brain activity during a breath-counting meditation using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and the whole-brain functional connectivity and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation were derived and utilized as feature vectors. The experimental results showed that resting and meditation states were classified on the feature space constructed by proposed method.


Generative Modeling of Hidden Functional Brain Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Functional connectivity refers to the temporal statistical relationship between spatially distinct brain regions and is usually inferred from the time series coherence/correlation in brain activity between regions of interest. In human functional brain networks, the network structure is often inferred from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. Since the BOLD signal is a proxy for neuronal activity, it is of interest to learn the latent functional network structure. Additionally, despite a core set of observations about functional networks such as small-worldness, modularity, exponentially truncated degree distributions, and presence of various types of hubs, very little is known about the computational principles which can give rise to these observations. This paper introduces a Hidden Markov Random Field framework for the purpose of representing, estimating, and evaluating latent neuronal functional relationships between different brain regions using fMRI data.


Discriminative Functional Connectivity Measures for Brain Decoding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a statistical learning model for classifying cognitive processes based on distributed patterns of neural activation in the brain, acquired via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the proposed learning method, local meshes are formed around each voxel. The distance between voxels in the mesh is determined by using a functional neighbourhood concept. In order to define the functional neighbourhood, the similarities between the time series recorded for voxels are measured and functional connectivity matrices are constructed. Then, the local mesh for each voxel is formed by including the functionally closest neighbouring voxels in the mesh. The relationship between the voxels within a mesh is estimated by using a linear regression model. These relationship vectors, called Functional Connectivity aware Local Relational Features (FC-LRF) are then used to train a statistical learning machine. The proposed method was tested on a recognition memory experiment, including data pertaining to encoding and retrieval of words belonging to ten different semantic categories. Two popular classifiers, namely k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), are trained in order to predict the semantic category of the item being retrieved, based on activation patterns during encoding. The classification performance of the Functional Mesh Learning model, which range in 62%-71% is superior to the classical multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) methods, which range in 40%-48%, for ten semantic categories.


Network reconstruction and community detection from dynamics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a scalable nonparametric Bayesian method to perform network reconstruction from observed functional behavior, that at the same time infers the communities present in the network. We show that the joint reconstruction with community detection has a synergistic effect, where the edge correlations used to inform the existence of communities are inherently also used to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction, which in turn can better inform the uncovering of communities. We illustrate the use of our method with observations arising from epidemic models and the Ising model, both on synthetic and empirical networks, as well as on data containing only functional information.