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Suicidal Ideation Detection: A Review of Machine Learning Methods and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Suicide is a critical issue in the modern society. Early detection and prevention of suicide attempt should be addressed to save people's life. Current suicidal ideation detection methods include clinical methods based on the interaction between social workers or experts and the targeted individuals, and machine learning techniques with feature engineering or deep learning for automatic detection based on online social contents. This is the first survey that comprehensively introduces and discusses the methods from these categories. Domain-specific applications of suicidal ideation detection are also reviewed according to their data sources, i.e., questionnaires, electronic health records, suicide notes, and online user content. To facilitate further research, several specific tasks and datasets are introduced. Finally, we summarize the limitations of current work and provide an outlook of further research directions.


Building and Using Personal Knowledge Graph to Improve Suicidal Ideation Detection on Social Media

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A large number of individuals are suffering from suicidal ideation in the world. There are a number of causes behind why an individual might suffer from suicidal ideation. As the most popular platform for self-expression, emotion release, and personal interaction, individuals may exhibit a number of symptoms of suicidal ideation on social media. Nevertheless, challenges from both data and knowledge aspects remain as obstacles, constraining the social media-based detection performance. Data implicitness and sparsity make it difficult to discover the inner true intentions of individuals based on their posts. Inspired by psychological studies, we build and unify a high-level suicide-oriented knowledge graph with deep neural networks for suicidal ideation detection on social media. We further design a two-layered attention mechanism to explicitly reason and establish key risk factors to individual's suicidal ideation. The performance study on microblog and Reddit shows that: 1) with the constructed personal knowledge graph, the social media-based suicidal ideation detection can achieve over 93% accuracy; and 2) among the six categories of personal factors, post, personality, and experience are the top-3 key indicators. Under these categories, posted text, stress level, stress duration, posted image, and ruminant thinking contribute to one's suicidal ideation detection.


Deep Sequential Models for Suicidal Ideation from Multiple Source Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Published in IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEAL TH INFORMA TICS. Abstract --This article presents a novel method for predicting suicidal ideation from Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data using deep sequential models. Both EHR longitudinal data and EMA question forms are defined by asynchronous, variable length, randomly-sampled data sequences. In our method, we model each of them with a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), and both sequences are aligned by concatenating the hidden state of each of them using temporal marks. Furthermore, we incorporate attention schemes to improve performance in long sequences and time-independent pre-trained schemes to cope with very short sequences. Using a database of 1023 patients, our experimental results show that the addition of EMA records boosts the system recall to predict the suicidal ideation diagnosis from 48.13% obtained exclusively from EHR-based state-of-the-art methods to 67.78%. Additionally, our method provides interpretability through the t-SNE representation of the latent space. Further, the most relevant input features are identified and interpreted medically. I NTRODUCTION A L THOUGH research on suicidal behavior has intensified in the last decade and there is now a greater understanding of the factors at play, suicide remains a complex public health problem [1] and the global prevalence of suicide continues to be high, with an annual global age-standardized suicide rate of 11.4 per 100 000 people [2].


Characterization of Time-variant and Time-invariant Assessment of Suicidality on Reddit using C-SSRS

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S (1999-2019). However, predicting when someone will attempt suicide has been nearly impossible. In the modern world, many individuals suffering from mental illness seek emotional support and advice on well-known and easily-accessible social media platforms such as Reddit. While prior artificial intelligence research has demonstrated the ability to extract valuable information from social media on suicidal thoughts and behaviors, these efforts have not considered both severity and temporality of risk. The insights made possible by access to such data have enormous clinical potential - most dramatically envisioned as a trigger to employ timely and targeted interventions (i.e., voluntary and involuntary psychiatric hospitalization) to save lives. In this work, we address this knowledge gap by developing deep learning algorithms to assess suicide risk in terms of severity and temporality from Reddit data based on the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). In particular, we employ two deep learning approaches: time-variant and time-invariant modeling, for user-level suicide risk assessment, and evaluate their performance against a clinician-adjudicated gold standard Reddit corpus annotated based on the C-SSRS. Our results suggest that the time-variant approach outperforms the time-invariant method in the assessment of suicide-related ideations and supportive behaviors (AUC:0.78), while the time-invariant model performed better in predicting suicide-related behaviors and suicide attempt (AUC:0.64). The proposed approach can be integrated with clinical diagnostic interviews for improving suicide risk assessments.


Fake News Detection in Spanish Using Deep Learning Techniques

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper addresses the problem of fake news detection in Spanish using Machine Learning techniques. It is fundamentally the same problem tackled for the English language; however, there is not a significant amount of publicly available and adequately labeled fake news in Spanish to effectively train a Machine Learning model, similarly to those proposed for the English language. Therefore, this work explores different training strategies and architectures to establish a baseline for further research in this area. Four datasets were used, two in English and two in Spanish, and four experimental schemes were tested, including a baseline with classical Machine Learning models, trained and validated using a small dataset in Spanish. The remaining schemes include state-of-the-art Deep Learning models trained (or fine-tuned) and validated in English, trained and validated in Spanish, and fitted in English and validated with automatic translated Spanish sentences. The Deep Learning architectures were built on top of different pre-trained Word Embedding representations, including GloVe, ELMo, BERT, and BETO (a BERT version trained on a large corpus in Spanish). According to the results, the best strategy was a combination of a pre-trained BETO model and a Recurrent Neural Network based on LSTM layers, yielding an accuracy of up to 80%; nonetheless, a baseline model using a Random Forest estimator obtained similar outcomes. Additionally, the translation strategy did not yield acceptable results because of the propagation error; there was also observed a significant difference in models performance when trained in English or Spanish, mainly attributable to the number of samples available for each language.