Collaborating Authors

Refurbished iPhone Seller Back Market Hits $5.7 Billion Valuation WSJD - Technology

A fresh slug of funding for the electronics reseller underscores the heady market for startups in Europe, previously seen as an also-ran in the tech universe.

Apple may become first trillion dollar company: What was the first billion dollar valuation?

The Independent - Tech

If the company plays its cards right, Apple could become the first ever company to reach a market valuation of one trillion dollars -- an achievement that would see it edging out several other tech giants vying for that historical record. That achievement -- to become the first company with twelve zeroes associated with their name -- would require a 7 per cent jump above its current valuation at $935bn, a possibility if the company posts a reassuring earnings report Tuesday afternoon. So far this year, Apple's stock is up 12 per cent this year, even as analysts have suggested that the company needs to roll out a new product if it wants to keep its sales and profits soaring. Becoming the first trillion dollar company would place Apple on an elite list of firsts, as far as market valuation is concerned. Here are the companies who have reached major financial milestones in the past.

Could Apple Be Valued At $3 Trillion? iPhone Maker Flirts With Monumental Valuation

International Business Times

Apple Inc. (AAPL) on Monday nearly became the world's first company to cross $3 trillion in market value. Shares of Apple jumped about 1% at $181.12 in premarket trading on Monday. Apple shares need to trade at least $182.86 to reach the record milestone. Apple closed the trading session at $175.74, down $3.71, or 2.07%. Apple shares have spiked over the years.

Dropbox IPO valuation set between $7bn and $8bn

The Guardian

The silver lining appears to be coming off Dropbox, the cloud storage company set to go public next week. On Monday, the company set terms for its initial public offering (IPO) that values the company at between $7bn and $8bn – well below the $10bn valuation when the company had raised private capital in 2014. Dropbox's IPO is one of the most closely watched stock offerings in years and comes as a stable of so-called unicorn tech companies – those valued at over $1bn – consider going public. Another unicorn – music streaming service Spotify – also plans to go public soon but has eschewed the IPO route and will sell its shares directly to the public. It is likely to be valued at more than $20bn.

Conditional Independence in Uncertainty Theories Artificial Intelligence

This paper introduces the notions of independence and conditional independence in valuation-based systems (VBS). VBS is an axiomatic framework capable of representing many different uncertainty calculi. We define independence and conditional independence in terms of factorization of the joint valuation. The definitions of independence and conditional independence in VBS generalize the corresponding definitions in probability theory. Our definitions apply not only to probability theory, but also to Dempster-Shafer's belief-function theory, Spohn's epistemic-belief theory, and Zadeh's possibility theory. In fact, they apply to any uncertainty calculi that fit in the framework of valuation-based systems.