Bayesian deep neural networks for low-cost neurophysiological markers of Alzheimer's disease severity Machine Learning

As societies around the world are ageing, the number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is rapidly increasing. To date, no low-cost, non-invasive biomarkers have been established to advance the objectivization of AD diagnosis and progression assessment. Here, we utilize Bayesian neural networks to develop a multivariate predictor for AD severity using a wide range of quantitative EEG (QEEG) markers. The Bayesian treatment of neural networks both automatically controls model complexity and provides a predictive distribution over the target function, giving uncertainty bounds for our regression task. It is therefore well suited to clinical neuroscience, where data sets are typically sparse and practitioners require a precise assessment of the predictive uncertainty. We use data of one of the largest prospective AD EEG trials ever conducted to demonstrate the potential of Bayesian deep learning in this domain, while comparing two distinct Bayesian neural network approaches, i.e., Monte Carlo dropout and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo.

Classification of Perceived Human Stress using Physiological Signals Machine Learning

In this paper, we present an experimental study for the classification of perceived human stress using non-invasive physiological signals. These include electroencephalography (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and photoplethysmography (PPG). We conducted experiments consisting of steps including data acquisition, feature extraction, and perceived human stress classification. The physiological data of $28$ participants are acquired in an open eye condition for a duration of three minutes. Four different features are extracted in time domain from EEG, GSR and PPG signals and classification is performed using multiple classifiers including support vector machine, the Naive Bayes, and multi-layer perceptron (MLP). The best classification accuracy of 75% is achieved by using MLP classifier. Our experimental results have shown that our proposed scheme outperforms existing perceived stress classification methods, where no stress inducers are used.

Artificial intelligence promising for CA, retinopathy diagnoses


Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, from the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, Netherlands, and colleagues compared the performance of automated deep learning algorithms for detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of lymph nodes of women with breast cancer with pathologists' diagnoses in a diagnostic setting. The researchers found that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.556 to 0.994 for the algorithms. The lesion-level, true-positive fraction achieved for the top-performing algorithm was comparable to that of the pathologist without a time constraint at a mean of 0.0125 false-positives per normal whole-slide image. Daniel Shu Wei Ting, M.D., Ph.D., from the Singapore National Eye Center, and colleagues assessed the performance of a DLS for detecting referable diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases using 494,661 retinal images. The researchers found that the AUC of the DLS for referable diabetic retinopathy was 0.936, and sensitivity and specificity were 90.5 and 91.6 percent, respectively.

Improving localization-based approaches for breast cancer screening exam classification Machine Learning

We trained and evaluated a localization-based deep CNN for breast cancer screening exam classification on over 200,000 exams (over 1,000,000 images). Our model achieves an AUC of 0.919 in predicting malignancy in patients undergoing breast cancer screening, reducing the error rate of the baseline (Wu et al., 2019a) by 23%. In addition, the models generates bounding boxes for benign and malignant findings, providing interpretable predictions.

Predicting Treatment Initiation from Clinical Time Series Data via Graph-Augmented Time-Sensitive Model Machine Learning

Many computational models were proposed to extract temporal patterns from clinical time series for each patient and among patient group for predictive healthcare. However, the common relations among patients (e.g., share the same doctor) were rarely considered. In this paper, we represent patients and clinicians relations by bipartite graphs addressing for example from whom a patient get a diagnosis. We then solve for the top eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian, and include the eigenvectors as latent representations of the similarity between patient-clinician pairs into a time-sensitive prediction model. We conducted experiments using real-world data to predict the initiation of first-line treatment for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients. Results show that relational similarity can improve prediction over multiple baselines, for example a 5% incremental over long-short term memory baseline in terms of area under precision-recall curve.