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This article provides an overview of evolutionary robotics research where evolution takes place in a population of robots in a continuous manner. Ficici et al. (1999) coined the phrase embodied evolution for evolutionary processes that are distributed over the robots in the population to allow them to adapt autonomously and continuously. As robotics technology becomes simultaneously more capable and economically viable, individual robots operated at large expense by teams of experts are increasingly supplemented by collectives of robots used cooperatively under minimal human supervision (Bellingham and Rajan, 2007), and embodied evolution can play a crucial role in enabling autonomous online adaptivity in such robot collectives.
Resonance, a powerful and pervasive phenomenon, appears to play a major role in human interactions. This article investigates the relationship between the physical mechanism of resonance and the human experience of resonance, and considers possibilities for enhancing the experience of resonance within human–robot interactions. We first introduce resonance as a widespread cultural and scientific metaphor. Then, we review the nature of “sympathetic resonance” as a physical mechanism. Following this introduction, the remainder of the article is organized in two parts. In part one, we review the role of resonance (including synchronization and rhythmic entrainment) in human cognition and social interactions. Then, in part two, we review resonance-related phenomena in robotics and artificial intelligence (AI). These two reviews serve as ground for the introduction of a design strategy and combinatorial design space for shaping resonant interactions with robots and AI. We conclude by posing hypotheses and research questions for future empirical studies and discuss a range of ethical and aesthetic issues associated with resonance in human–robot interactions.
Optical neural networks are emerging as a promising type of machine learning hardware capable of energy-efficient, parallel computation. Today's optical neural networks are mainly developed to perform optical inference after in silico training on digital simulators. However, various physical imperfections that cannot be accurately modeled may lead to the notorious "reality gap" between the digital simulator and the physical system. To address this challenge, we demonstrate hybrid training of optical neural networks where the weight matrix is trained with neuron activation functions computed optically via forward propagation through the network. We examine the efficacy of hybrid training with three different networks: an optical linear classifier, a hybrid opto-electronic network, and a complex-valued optical network. We perform a study comparative to in silico training, and our results show that hybrid training is robust against different kinds of static noise. Our platform-agnostic hybrid training scheme can be applied to a wide variety of optical neural networks, and this work paves the way towards advanced all-optical training in machine intelligence. Published by Optica Publishing Group under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Machine learning powered by artificial neural networks has reshaped the landscape in many different areas over the last decade.