To develop a machine learning-based model for the binary classification of chest radiography abnormalities, to serve as a retrospective tool in guiding clinician reporting prioritisation. The open-source machine learning library, Tensorflow, was used to retrain a final layer of the deep convolutional neural network, Inception, to perform binary normality classification on two, anonymised, public image datasets. Re-training was performed on 47,644 images using commodity hardware, with validation testing on 5,505 previously unseen radiographs. Confusion matrix analysis was performed to derive diagnostic utility metrics. This study demonstrates the application of a machine learning-based approach to classify chest radiographs as normal or abnormal.
Early diagnosis of acute coronary artery occlusion based on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings is essential for prompt delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Current ST elevation (STE) criteria are specific but insensitive. Consequently, it is likely that many patients are missing out on potentially life-saving treatment. Experts combining non-specific ECG changes with STE detect ischaemia with higher sensitivity, but at the cost of specificity. We show that a deep learning model can detect ischaemia caused by acute coronary artery occlusion with a better balance of sensitivity and specificity than STE criteria, existing computerised analysers or expert cardiologists.
Detecting and segmenting brain metastases is a tedious and time-consuming task for many radiologists, particularly with the growing use of multi-sequence 3D imaging. This study demonstrates automated detection and segmentation of brain metastases on multi-sequence MRI using a deep learning approach based on a fully convolution neural network (CNN). In this retrospective study, a total of 156 patients with brain metastases from several primary cancers were included. Pre-therapy MR images (1.5T and 3T) included pre- and post-gadolinium T1-weighted 3D fast spin echo, post-gadolinium T1-weighted 3D axial IR-prepped FSPGR, and 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery. The ground truth was established by manual delineation by two experienced neuroradiologists. CNN training/development was performed using 100 and 5 patients, respectively, with a 2.5D network based on a GoogLeNet architecture. The results were evaluated in 51 patients, equally separated into those with few (1-3), multiple (4-10), and many (>10) lesions. Network performance was evaluated using precision, recall, Dice/F1 score, and ROC-curve statistics. For an optimal probability threshold, detection and segmentation performance was assessed on a per metastasis basis. The area under the ROC-curve (AUC), averaged across all patients, was 0.98. The AUC in the subgroups was 0.99, 0.97, and 0.97 for patients having 1-3, 4-10, and >10 metastases, respectively. Using an average optimal probability threshold determined by the development set, precision, recall, and Dice-score were 0.79, 0.53, and 0.79, respectively. At the same probability threshold, the network showed an average false positive rate of 8.3/patient (no lesion-size limit) and 3.4/patient (10 mm3 lesion size limit). In conclusion, a deep learning approach using multi-sequence MRI can aid in the detection and segmentation of brain metastases.
Microsoft researchers have created an artificial intelligence-based system that learned how to get the maximum score on the addictive 1980s video game Ms. Pac-Man, using a divide-and-conquer method that could have broad implications for teaching AI agents to do complex tasks that augment human capabilities. The team from Maluuba, a Canadian deep learning startup acquired by Microsoft earlier this year, used a branch of AI called reinforcement learning to play the Atari 2600 version of Ms. Pac-Man perfectly. Using that method, the team achieved the maximum score possible of 999,990. Doina Precup, an associate professor of computer science at McGill University in Montreal said that's a significant achievement among AI researchers, who have been using various videogames to test their systems but have found Ms. Pac-Man among the most difficult to crack. But Precup said she was impressed not just with what the researchers achieved but with how they achieved it.
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) stand at the forefront of many recent developments in deep learning. Yet a major difficulty with these models is their tendency to overfit, with dropout shown to fail when applied to recurrent layers. Recent results at the intersection of Bayesian modelling and deep learning offer a Bayesian interpretation of common deep learning techniques such as dropout. This grounding of dropout in approximate Bayesian inference suggests an extension of the theoretical results, offering insights into the use of dropout with RNN models. We apply this new variational inference based dropout technique in LSTM and GRU models, assessing it on language modelling and sentiment analysis tasks. The new approach outperforms existing techniques, and to the best of our knowledge improves on the single model state-of-the-art in language modelling with the Penn Treebank (73.4 test perplexity). This extends our arsenal of variational tools in deep learning.