Electroencephalography (EEG) is a complex signal and can require several years of training to be correctly interpreted. Recently, deep learning (DL) has shown great promise in helping make sense of EEG signals due to its capacity to learn good feature representations from raw data. Whether DL truly presents advantages as compared to more traditional EEG processing approaches, however, remains an open question. In this work, we review 156 papers that apply DL to EEG, published between January 2010 and July 2018, and spanning different application domains such as epilepsy, sleep, brain-computer interfacing, and cognitive and affective monitoring. We extract trends and highlight interesting approaches in order to inform future research and formulate recommendations. Various data items were extracted for each study pertaining to 1) the data, 2) the preprocessing methodology, 3) the DL design choices, 4) the results, and 5) the reproducibility of the experiments. Our analysis reveals that the amount of EEG data used across studies varies from less than ten minutes to thousands of hours. As for the model, 40% of the studies used convolutional neural networks (CNNs), while 14% used recurrent neural networks (RNNs), most often with a total of 3 to 10 layers. Moreover, almost one-half of the studies trained their models on raw or preprocessed EEG time series. Finally, the median gain in accuracy of DL approaches over traditional baselines was 5.4% across all relevant studies. More importantly, however, we noticed studies often suffer from poor reproducibility: a majority of papers would be hard or impossible to reproduce given the unavailability of their data and code. To help the field progress, we provide a list of recommendations for future studies and we make our summary table of DL and EEG papers available and invite the community to contribute.
The introduction of deep learning and transfer learning techniques in fields such as computer vision allowed a leap forward in the accuracy of image classification tasks. Currently there is only limited use of such techniques in neuroscience. The challenge of using deep learning methods to successfully train models in neuroscience, lies in the complexity of the information that is processed, the availability of data and the cost of producing sufficient high quality annotations. Inspired by its application in computer vision, we introduce transfer learning on electrophysiological data to enable training a model with limited amounts of data. Our method was tested on the dataset of the BCI competition IV 2a and compared to the top results that were obtained using traditional machine learning techniques. Using our DL model we outperform the top result of the competition by 33%. We also explore transferability of knowledge between trained models over different experiments, called inter-experimental transfer learning. This reduces the amount of required data even further and is especially useful when few subjects are available. This method is able to outperform the standard deep learning methods used in the BCI competition IV 2b approaches by 18%. In this project we propose a method that can produce reliable electroencephalography (EEG) signal classification, based on modest amounts of training data through the use of transfer learning.
Brain computer interfaces (BCI) enable direct communication with a computer, using neural activity as the control signal. This signal is generally chosen from a variety of well-studied electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. For a given BCI paradigm, feature extractors and classifiers are tailored to the distinct characteristics of its expected EEG control signal, limiting its application to that specific signal. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which have been used in computer vision and speech recognition to perform automatic feature extraction and classification, have successfully been applied to EEG-based BCIs; however, they have mainly been applied to single BCI paradigms and thus it remains unclear how these architectures generalize to other paradigms. Here, we ask if we can design a single CNN architecture to accurately classify EEG signals from different BCI paradigms, while simultaneously being as compact as possible (defined as the number of parameters in the model). In this work we introduce EEGNet, a compact convolutional network for EEG-based BCIs. We introduce the use of depthwise and separable convolutions to more efficiently extract relevant features for EEG-based BCIs. We compare EEGNet, both for within-subject and cross-subject classification, to current state-of-the-art approaches across four BCI paradigms: P300 visual-evoked potentials, error-related negativity responses (ERN), movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), and sensory motor rhythms (SMR). We show that EEGNet generalizes across paradigms better than, and achieves comparably high performance to, traditional approaches, while simultaneously fitting up to two orders of magnitude fewer parameters. We also demonstrate ways to visualize the contents of a trained EEGNet model to enable interpretation of the learned features.
Zhang, Dalin (The University of New South Wales) | Yao, Lina (The University of New South Wales) | Zhang, Xiang (The University of New South Wales) | Wang, Sen (Griffith University) | Chen, Weitong (The University of Queensland) | Boots, Robert (Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital) | Benatallah, Boualem (The University of Queensland)
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system empowering humans to communicate with or control the outside world with exclusively brain intentions. Electroencephalography (EEG) based BCIs are promising solutions due to their convenient and portable instruments. Despite the extensive research of EEG in recent years, it is still challenging to interpret EEG signals effectively due to the massive noises in EEG signals (e.g., low signal-noise ratio and incomplete EEG signals), and difficulties in capturing the inconspicuous relationships between EEG signals and certain brain activities. Most existing works either only consider EEG as chain-like sequences neglecting complex dependencies between adjacent signals or requiring pre-processing such as transforming EEG waves into images. In this paper, we introduce both cascade and parallel convolutional recurrent neural network models for precisely identifying human intended movements and instructions effectively learning the compositional spatio-temporal representations of raw EEG streams. Extensive experiments on a large scale movement intention EEG dataset (108 subjects,3,145,160 EEG records) have demonstrated that both models achieve high accuracy near 98.3% and outperform a set of baseline methods and most recent deep learning based EEG recognition models, yielding a significant accuracy increase of 18% in the cross-subject validation scenario. The developed models are further evaluated with a real-world BCI and achieve a recognition accuracy of 93% over five instruction intentions. This suggests the proposed models are able to generalize over different kinds of intentions and BCI systems.
Classifying limb movements using brain activity is an important task in Brain-computer Interfaces (BCI) that has been successfully used in multiple application domains, ranging from human-computer interaction to medical and biomedical applications. This paper proposes a novel solution for classification of left/right hand movement by exploiting a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network with attention mechanism to learn from sequential data available in the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this context, a wide range of time and frequency domain features are first extracted from the EEG signal and are then evaluated using a Random Forest (RF) to select the most important features. The selected features are arranged as a spatio-temporal sequence to feed the LSTM network, learning from the sequential data to perform the classification task. We conduct extensive experiments with the EEG motor movement/imagery database and show that our proposed solution achieves effective results outperforming baseline methods and the state-of-the-art in both intra-subject and cross-subject evaluation schemes. Moreover, we utilize the proposed framework to analyze the information as received by the sensors and monitor the activated regions of the brain by tracking EEG topography throughout the experiments.