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Can Explainable AI Explain Unfairness? A Framework for Evaluating Explainable AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Many ML models are opaque to humans, producing decisions too complex for humans to easily understand. In response, explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) tools that analyze the inner workings of a model have been created. Despite these tools' strength in translating model behavior, critiques have raised concerns about the impact of XAI tools as a tool for `fairwashing` by misleading users into trusting biased or incorrect models. In this paper, we created a framework for evaluating explainable AI tools with respect to their capabilities for detecting and addressing issues of bias and fairness as well as their capacity to communicate these results to their users clearly. We found that despite their capabilities in simplifying and explaining model behavior, many prominent XAI tools lack features that could be critical in detecting bias. Developers can use our framework to suggest modifications needed in their toolkits to reduce issues likes fairwashing.


30 Basic Machine Learning Questions Answered

#artificialintelligence

Machine Learning is the path to a better and advanced future. A Machine Learning Developer is the most demanding job in 2021 and it is going to increase by 20–30% in the upcoming 3–5 years. Machine Learning by the core is all statistics and programming concepts. The language that is mostly used by Machine learning developers for coding is python because of its simplicity. In this blog, you will some of the most asked machine learning questions that every machine learning enthusiast has to answer one day.


Machine learning-based clinical prediction modeling -- A practical guide for clinicians

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Staartjes have contributed equally to this series, and share first authorship. Abstract As analytical machine learning tools become readily available for clinicians to use, the understanding of key concepts and the awareness of analytical pitfalls are increasingly required for clinicians, investigators, reviewers and editors, who even as experts in their clinical field, sometimes find themselves insufficiently equipped to evaluate machine learning methodologies. In this section, we provide explanations on the general principles of machine learning, as well as analytical steps required for successful machine learning-based predictive modelling, which is the focus of this series. In particular, we define the terms machine learning, artificial intelligence, as well as supervised and unsupervised learning, continuing by introducing optimization, thus, the minimization of an objective error function as the central dogma of machine learning. In addition, we discuss why it is important to separate predictive and explanatory modelling, and most importantly state that a prediction model should not be used to make inferences. Lastly, we broadly describe a classical workflow for training a machine learning model, starting with data pre-processing and feature engineering and selection, continuing on with a training structure consisting of a resampling method, hyperparameter tuning, and model selection, and ending with evaluation of model discrimination and calibration as well as robust internal or external validation of the fully developed model. Methodological rigor and clarity as well as understanding of the underlying reasoning of the internal workings of a machine learning approach are required, otherwise predictive applications despite being strong analytical tools are not well accepted into the clinical routine.


30 Most Asked Machine Learning Questions Answered - KDnuggets

#artificialintelligence

Machine Learning is the path to a better and advanced future. A Machine Learning Developer is the most demanding job in 2021, and it is going to increase by 20–30% in the upcoming 3–5 years. Machine Learning by the core is all statistics and programming concepts. The language that is mostly used by Machine learning developers for coding is python because of its simplicity. In this blog, you will find some of the most asked machine learning questions that every machine learning enthusiast has to answer one day. Ans: Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act in a real-time situation without being explicitly programmed.