Diabetes is one of deadliest diseases in the world. It is not only a disease but also a creator of different kinds of diseases like heart attack, blindness, kidney diseases, etc. The normal identifying process is that patients need to visit a diagnostic center, consult their doctor, and sit tight for a day or more to get their reports. Moreover, every time they want to get their diagnosis report, they have to waste their money in vain. But with the rise of Machine Learning approaches we have the ability to find a solution to this issue, we have developed a system using data mining which has the ability to predict whether the patient has diabetes or not.
Recently, researchers have started applying convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with one-dimensional convolutions to clinical tasks involving time-series data. This is due, in part, to their computational efficiency, relative to recurrent neural networks and their ability to efficiently exploit certain temporal invariances, (e.g., phase invariance). However, it is well-established that clinical data may exhibit many other types of invariances (e.g., scaling). While preprocessing techniques, (e.g., dynamic time warping) may successfully transform and align inputs, their use often requires one to identify the types of invariances in advance. In contrast, we propose the use of Sequence Transformer Networks, an end-to-end trainable architecture that learns to identify and account for invariances in clinical time-series data. Applied to the task of predicting in-hospital mortality, our proposed approach achieves an improvement in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) relative to a baseline CNN (AUROC=0.851 vs. AUROC=0.838). Our results suggest that a variety of valuable invariances can be learned directly from the data.
Despite partial success, communication has remained impossible for persons suffering from complete motor paralysis but intact cognitive and emotional processing, a state called complete locked-in state (CLIS). Based on a motor learning theoretical context and on the failure of neuroelectric brain–computer interface (BCI) communication attempts in CLIS, we here report BCI communication using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and an implicit attentional processing procedure. Four patients suffering from advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)--two of them in permanent CLIS and two entering the CLIS without reliable means of communication--learned to answer personal questions with known answers and open questions all requiring a "yes" or "no" thought using frontocentral oxygenation changes measured with fNIRS. Three patients completed more than 46 sessions spread over several weeks, and one patient (patient W) completed 20 sessions. Online fNIRS classification of personal questions with known answers and open questions using linear support vector machine (SVM) resulted in an above-chance-level correct response rate over 70%.
We investigate the choice of tuning parameters for a Bayesian multi-level group lasso model developed for the joint analysis of neuroimaging and genetic data. The regression model we consider relates multivariate phenotypes consisting of brain summary measures (volumetric and cortical thickness values) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) data and imposes penalization at two nested levels, the first corresponding to genes and the second corresponding to SNPs. Associated with each level in the penalty is a tuning parameter which corresponds to a hyperparameter in the hierarchical Bayesian formulation. Following previous work on Bayesian lassos we consider the estimation of tuning parameters through either hierarchical Bayes based on hyperpriors and Gibbs sampling or through empirical Bayes based on maximizing the marginal likelihood using a Monte Carlo EM algorithm. For the specific model under consideration we find that these approaches can lead to severe overshrinkage of the regression parameter estimates in the high-dimensional setting or when the genetic effects are weak. We demonstrate these problems through simulation examples and study an approximation to the marginal likelihood which sheds light on the cause of this problem. We then suggest an alternative approach based on the widely applicable information criterion (WAIC), an asymptotic approximation to leave-one-out cross-validation that can be computed conveniently within an MCMC framework.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an extensively-used and well-studied technique in the field of medical diagnostics and treatment for brain disorders, including epilepsy, migraines, and tumors. The analysis and interpretation of EEGs require physicians to have specialized training, which is not common even among most doctors in the developed world, let alone the developing world where physician shortages plague society. This problem can be addressed by teleEEG that uses remote EEG analysis by experts or by local computer processing of EEGs. However, both of these options are prohibitively expensive and the second option requires abundant computing resources and infrastructure, which is another concern in developing countries where there are resource constraints on capital and computing infrastructure. In this work, we present a cloud-based deep neural network approach to provide decision support for non-specialist physicians in EEG analysis and interpretation. Named `neurology-as-a-service,' the approach requires almost no manual intervention in feature engineering and in the selection of an optimal architecture and hyperparameters of the neural network. In this study, we deploy a pipeline that includes moving EEG data to the cloud and getting optimal models for various classification tasks. Our initial prototype has been tested only in developed world environments to-date, but our intention is to test it in developing world environments in future work. We demonstrate the performance of our proposed approach using the BCI2000 EEG MMI dataset, on which our service attains 63.4% accuracy for the task of classifying real vs. imaginary activity performed by the subject, which is significantly higher than what is obtained with a shallow approach such as support vector machines.