Approximately 330,000 cataract operations are performed in England alone and it all started with the introduction of the intraocular lens. Sir Harold Ridley was the first to successfully implant an intraocular lens on 29 November 1949, at St Thomas' Hospital at London, however, it wasn't until the 1970s, following further developments in lens design and surgical techniques, that the lens found acceptance in cataract surgery. Laser eye surgery then followed on from the intraocular lens in the 1990s.
Astronauts on space missions should start wearing swimming goggles to prevent the affect of weightlessness on their sight, according to new research from NASA. Astronauts on long missions at the International Space Station often experience changes to their eyes that can last for years, including impaired vision. Scientists have found that wearing goggles that create mild pressure around the eyes can counteract the problem, caused by a drop in pressure inside the eye. These could be swimming goggles or the type of safety glasses commonly worn by sportsman and constructors. Astronauts on space missions could start wearing swimming goggles like those in the picture to prevent the affect of weightlessness on their sight, according to new research.
Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a highly curable condition if properly treated early1, 2; however, if it is left untreated and develops proliferative changes, it becomes an uncontrollable condition called proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). PVR is a serious condition that can result in blindness regardless of repeated treatments3,4,5. It is important, therefore, for patients to be seen and treated at a vitreoretinal centre at the early RRD stage to preserve visual function. However, establishing such vitreoretinal centres that provide advanced ophthalmological procedures is not practical because of rising social security costs, a problem that is troubling many nations around the world6. On the other hand, medical equipment has made remarkable advances, and one such advancement is the ultra–wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Optos 200Tx; Optos PLC, Dunfermline, United Kingdom).
MLP networks provided slightly better risk prediction than conventional logistic regression when used to predict the risk of death, stroke, and renal failure on 1257 patients who underwent coronaryartery bypass operations. Bootstrap sampling was required to compare approaches and regularization provided by early stopping was an important component of improved performance. A simplified approach to generating confidence intervals for MLP risk predictions using an auxiliary "confidence MLP" was also developed. The confidence MLP is trained to reproduce the confidence bounds that were generated during training by 50 MLP networks trained using bootstrap samples. Current research is validating these results usinglarger data sets, exploring approaches to detect outlier patients who are so different fromany training patient that accurate risk prediction is suspect, developing approaches toexplaining which input features are important for an individual patient, and determining why MLP networks provide improved performance.