Reduction of the State Observation Problem to an Identifiability Problem

AAAI Conferences

Data integrity is a property which a world state interpreted with a world model is consistent with the real operating environment. Even a formally verified safety claim of an autonomous system is prone to a malfunction caused by loss of data integrity. From a first-person viewpoint in a congested environment, some components of measurable part of the world state may become transiently deficient or unavailable because of the limited capability of sensor devices. If the system could get into a situation where the world state becomes suddenly unobservable, existing estimation methods may get unstable. These methods can hardly detect the loss of data integrity and produce an incorrect estimate without any notice. Our insight is that we can merge the original concept of observer theory with that of automated reasoning. Firstly, we propose a new way of unifying them into a problem of checking satisfiability of a formula that consists of predicates regarding the world model and decision variables regarding unmeasurable part of the world state. We can detect a loss of data integrity by checking if the problem is unsatisfiable. Secondly, we replace the idea of observability in control theory with identifiability with respect to a measure of tolerance and a world model. We show a procedure of estimating the world state with a bounded uncertainty specified by the measure of tolerance. Third, we show that a problem of sensor fusion, a problem of reasoning a world state of discrete and enumerated type, and a decision problem under uncertainty in the world state are formulated as an identifiability problem. The proposal presents a constructive basis for supporting the degree of confidence in the estimated world state.


World Cup schedule, how to watch and other things to know

FOX News

The 2018 World Cup kicks off on June 14, much to the anticipation of 32 teams, more than 700 players and a countless number of fans. In all, 64 matches will be played in 11 different cities throughout Russia. This is the first time the World Cup is being held in Eastern Europe. The world's biggest sports tournament will be broadcast in the U.S. on Fox Sports. From which teams have qualified for the tournament to who is favored to win, here's what you need to know about the 21st World Cup.


The World Cup of Biscuits 2017 is here and it's so British it hurts

Mashable

Ask any English person about their favorite biscuit and you'll get a passionate, definitive response. The argument over biscuit superiority can be a point of contention. TV host Richard Osman is about to officially answer this age old question with the World Cup of Biscuits tournament. Osman is responsible for other entertainingly divisive tournaments like the World Cup of Crisps 2016 and the World Cup of Christmas Films 2016. Quarter-finals live on @rednoseday this evening.



World Cup schedule, how to watch and other things to know

FOX News

The 2018 World Cup kicks off on June 14, much to the anticipation of 32 teams, more than 700 players and a countless number of fans. In all, 64 matches will be played in 11 different cities throughout Russia. This is the first time the World Cup is being held in Eastern Europe. The world's biggest sports tournament will be broadcast in the U.S. on Fox Sports. From which teams have qualified for the tournament to who is favored to win, here's what you need to know about the 21st World Cup.