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Foundations of Explainable Knowledge-Enabled Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainability has been an important goal since the early days of Artificial Intelligence. Several approaches for producing explanations have been developed. However, many of these approaches were tightly coupled with the capabilities of the artificial intelligence systems at the time. With the proliferation of AI-enabled systems in sometimes critical settings, there is a need for them to be explainable to end-users and decision-makers. We present a historical overview of explainable artificial intelligence systems, with a focus on knowledge-enabled systems, spanning the expert systems, cognitive assistants, semantic applications, and machine learning domains. Additionally, borrowing from the strengths of past approaches and identifying gaps needed to make explanations user- and context-focused, we propose new definitions for explanations and explainable knowledge-enabled systems.


A Review on Explainability in Multimodal Deep Neural Nets

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence techniques powered by deep neural nets have achieved much success in several application domains, most significantly and notably in the Computer Vision applications and Natural Language Processing tasks. Surpassing human-level performance propelled the research in the applications where different modalities amongst language, vision, sensory, text play an important role in accurate predictions and identification. Several multimodal fusion methods employing deep learning models are proposed in the literature. Despite their outstanding performance, the complex, opaque and black-box nature of the deep neural nets limits their social acceptance and usability. This has given rise to the quest for model interpretability and explainability, more so in the complex tasks involving multimodal AI methods. This paper extensively reviews the present literature to present a comprehensive survey and commentary on the explainability in multimodal deep neural nets, especially for the vision and language tasks. Several topics on multimodal AI and its applications for generic domains have been covered in this paper, including the significance, datasets, fundamental building blocks of the methods and techniques, challenges, applications, and future trends in this domain


Local Interpretations for Explainable Natural Language Processing: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As the use of deep learning techniques has grown across various fields over the past decade, complaints about the opaqueness of the black-box models have increased, resulting in an increased focus on transparency in deep learning models. This work investigates various methods to improve the interpretability of deep neural networks for natural language processing (NLP) tasks, including machine translation and sentiment analysis. We provide a comprehensive discussion on the definition of the term \textit{interpretability} and its various aspects at the beginning of this work. The methods collected and summarised in this survey are only associated with local interpretation and are divided into three categories: 1) explaining the model's predictions through related input features; 2) explaining through natural language explanation; 3) probing the hidden states of models and word representations.


Semantics of the Black-Box: Can knowledge graphs help make deep learning systems more interpretable and explainable?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The recent series of innovations in deep learning (DL) have shown enormous potential to impact individuals and society, both positively and negatively. The DL models utilizing massive computing power and enormous datasets have significantly outperformed prior historical benchmarks on increasingly difficult, well-defined research tasks across technology domains such as computer vision, natural language processing, signal processing, and human-computer interactions. However, the Black-Box nature of DL models and their over-reliance on massive amounts of data condensed into labels and dense representations poses challenges for interpretability and explainability of the system. Furthermore, DLs have not yet been proven in their ability to effectively utilize relevant domain knowledge and experience critical to human understanding. This aspect is missing in early data-focused approaches and necessitated knowledge-infused learning and other strategies to incorporate computational knowledge. This article demonstrates how knowledge, provided as a knowledge graph, is incorporated into DL methods using knowledge-infused learning, which is one of the strategies. We then discuss how this makes a fundamental difference in the interpretability and explainability of current approaches, and illustrate it with examples from natural language processing for healthcare and education applications.


A Survey of the State of Explainable AI for Natural Language Processing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent years have seen important advances in the quality of state-of-the-art models, but this has come at the expense of models becoming less interpretable. This survey presents an overview of the current state of Explainable AI (XAI), considered within the domain of Natural Language Processing (NLP). We discuss the main categorization of explanations, as well as the various ways explanations can be arrived at and visualized. We detail the operations and explainability techniques currently available for generating explanations for NLP model predictions, to serve as a resource for model developers in the community. Finally, we point out the current gaps and encourage directions for future work in this important research area.