This paper deals with the relationship between intelligent behaviour, on the one hand, and the mental qualities needed to produce it, on the other. We consider two well-known opposing positions on this issue: one due to Alan Turing and one due to John Searle (via the Chinese Room). In particular, we argue against Searle, showing that his answer to the so-called System Reply does not work. The argument takes a novel form: we shift the debate to a different and more plausible room where the required conversational behaviour is much easier to characterize and to analyze. Despite being much simpler than the Chinese Room, we show that the behaviour there is still complex enough that it cannot be produced without appropriate mental qualities.
Bryan Johnson is the founder and chief executive officer of the neuroprosthesis developer Kernel and the founder of OS Fund and Braintree. Through the past few decades of summer blockbuster movies and Silicon Valley products, artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly familiar and sexy, and imbued with a perversely dystopian allure. What's talked about less, and has also been dwarfed in attention and resources, is human intelligence (HI). In its varied forms -- from the mysterious brains of octopuses and the swarm-minds of ants to Go-playing deep learning machines and driverless-car autopilots -- intelligence is the most powerful and precious resource in existence. Our own minds are the most familiar examples of a phenomenon characterized by a great deal of diversity.
In an earlier blog article I wrote about how human intelligence differs from artificial intelligence, namely human intelligence is general intelligence while artificial intelligence is specialized intelligence. The article provides "food for thought" for those who fear technology evolution, and specifically AI. In today's article I offer more reflections on the evolution of AI. Put in simple words, AI is about Thinking Machines. The English computer scientist Alan Turing was the first academic who proposed to consider the question "Can machines think?" in 1950.
According to the science magazine Nature, chemists are heralding a new artificial intelligence platform as a significant milestone. The platform has the potential to accelerate the process of drug discovery, and it should be able to make organic chemistry more efficient. The new platform is designed to help chemists to plan the syntheses of small organic molecules. Traditionally, chemists use the process of retrosynthesis, which is an established problem-solving technique whereby target molecules are recursively transformed into increasingly simpler precursors. The goal of retrosynthetic analysis is structural simplification.
We are living in interesting times, where digital assistants schedule meetings, chatbots work alongside humans as teaching assistants, and your suitcase can now become self driving luggage as showcased at CES, 2018. The implications are just starting to be felt in the workplace. In 2017, I wrote about how The Employee Experience is the Future of Work. Now, as we enter 2018, the next journey for HR leaders will be to leverage artificial intelligence combined with human intelligence and create a more personalized employee experience. As we increase our personal usage of chatbots (defined as software which provides an automated, yet personalized, conversation between itself and human users), employees will soon interact with them in the workplace as well.