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ASAM: Adaptive Sharpness-Aware Minimization for Scale-Invariant Learning of Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recently, learning algorithms motivated from sharpness of loss surface as an effective measure of generalization gap have shown state-of-the-art performances. Nevertheless, sharpness defined in a rigid region with a fixed radius, has a drawback in sensitivity to parameter re-scaling which leaves the loss unaffected, leading to weakening of the connection between sharpness and generalization gap. In this paper, we introduce the concept of adaptive sharpness which is scale-invariant and propose the corresponding generalization bound. We suggest a novel learning method, adaptive sharpness-aware minimization (ASAM), utilizing the proposed generalization bound. Experimental results in various benchmark datasets show that ASAM contributes to significant improvement of model generalization performance.


Sharpness-Aware Minimization for Efficiently Improving Generalization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In today's heavily overparameterized models, the value of the training loss provides few guarantees on model generalization ability. Indeed, optimizing only the training loss value, as is commonly done, can easily lead to suboptimal model quality. Motivated by the connection between geometry of the loss landscape and generalization---including a generalization bound that we prove here---we introduce a novel, effective procedure for instead simultaneously minimizing loss value and loss sharpness. In particular, our procedure, Sharpness-Aware Minimization (SAM), seeks parameters that lie in neighborhoods having uniformly low loss; this formulation results in a min-max optimization problem on which gradient descent can be performed efficiently. We present empirical results showing that SAM improves model generalization across a variety of benchmark datasets (e.g., CIFAR-{10, 100}, ImageNet, finetuning tasks) and models, yielding novel state-of-the-art performance for several. Additionally, we find that SAM natively provides robustness to label noise on par with that provided by state-of-the-art procedures that specifically target learning with noisy labels.


SALR: Sharpness-aware Learning Rates for Improved Generalization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In an effort to improve generalization in deep learning, we propose SALR: a sharpness-aware learning rate update technique designed to recover flat minimizers. Our method dynamically updates the learning rate of gradient-based optimizers based on the local sharpness of the loss function. This allows optimizers to automatically increase learning rates at sharp valleys to increase the chance of escaping them. We demonstrate the effectiveness of SALR when adopted by various algorithms over a broad range of networks. Our experiments indicate that SALR improves generalization, converges faster, and drives solutions to significantly flatter regions. Generalization in deep learning has recently been an active area of research.


Exploring Generalization in Deep Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

With a goal of understanding what drives generalization in deep networks, we consider several recently suggested explanations, including norm-based control, sharpness and robustness. We study how these measures can ensure generalization, highlighting the importance of scale normalization, and making a connection between sharpness and PAC-Bayes theory. We then investigate how well the measures explain different observed phenomena.


Why Flatness Correlates With Generalization For Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The intuition that local flatness of the loss landscape is correlated with better generalization for deep neural networks (DNNs) has been explored for decades, spawning many different local flatness measures. Here we argue that these measures correlate with generalization because they are local approximations to a global property, the volume of the set of parameters mapping to a specific function. This global volume is equivalent to the Bayesian prior upon initialization. For functions that give zero error on a test set, it is directly proportional to the Bayesian posterior, making volume a more robust and theoretically better grounded predictor of generalization than flatness. Whilst flatness measures fail under parameter re-scaling, volume remains invariant and therefore continues to correlate well with generalization. Moreover, some variants of SGD can break the flatness-generalization correlation, while the volume-generalization correlation remains intact.