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Context-Aware Unsupervised Clustering for Person Search

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The existing person search methods use the annotated labels of person identities to train deep networks in a supervised manner that requires a huge amount of time and effort for human labeling. In this paper, we first introduce a novel framework of person search that is able to train the network in the absence of the person identity labels, and propose efficient unsupervised clustering methods to substitute the supervision process using annotated person identity labels. Specifically, we propose a hard negative mining scheme based on the uniqueness property that only a single person has the same identity to a given query person in each image. We also propose a hard positive mining scheme by using the contextual information of co-appearance that neighboring persons in one image tend to appear simultaneously in other images. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves comparable performance to that of the state-of-the-art supervised person search methods, and furthermore outperforms the extended unsupervised person re-identification methods on the benchmark person search datasets.


Binary Classifier Inspired by Quantum Theory

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine Learning (ML) helps us to recognize patterns from raw data. ML is used in numerous domains i.e. biomedical, agricultural, food technology, etc. Despite recent technological advancements, there is still room for substantial improvement in prediction. Current ML models are based on classical theories of probability and statistics, which can now be replaced by Quantum Theory (QT) with the aim of improving the effectiveness of ML. In this paper, we propose the Binary Classifier Inspired by Quantum Theory (BCIQT) model, which outperforms the state of the art classification in terms of recall for every category.


Probabilistic Decoupling of Labels in Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We investigate probabilistic decoupling of labels supplied for training, from the underlying classes for prediction. Decoupling enables an inference scheme general enough to implement many classification problems, including supervised, semi-supervised, positive-unlabelled, noisy-label and suggests a general solution to the multi-positive-unlabelled learning problem. We test the method on the Fashion MNIST and 20 News Groups datasets for performance benchmarks, where we simulate noise, partial labelling etc.


Binary Classification from Positive-Confidence Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Reducing labeling costs in supervised learning is a critical issue in many practical machine learning applications. In this paper, we consider positive-confidence (Pconf) classification, the problem of training a binary classifier only from positive data equipped with confidence. Pconf classification can be regarded as a discriminative extension of one-class classification (which is aimed at "describing" the positive class by clustering-related methods), with ability to tune hyper-parameters for "classifying" positive and negative samples. Pconf classification is also related to positive-unlabeled (PU) classification (which uses hard-labeled positive data and unlabeled data), but the difference is that it enables us to avoid estimating the class priors, which is a critical bottleneck in typical PU classification methods. For the Pconf classification problem, we provide a simple empirical risk minimization framework and give a formulation for linear-in-parameter models that can be implemented easily and computationally efficiently. We also theoretically establish the consistency and estimation error bound for Pconf classification, and demonstrate the practical usefulness of the proposed method for deep neural networks through experiments.


Unsupervised Person Re-identification via Multi-Label Prediction and Classification based on Graph-Structural Insight

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper addresses unsupervised person re-identification (Re-ID) using multi-label prediction and classification based on graph-structural insight. Our method extracts features from person images and produces a graph that consists of the features and a pairwise similarity of them as nodes and edges, respectively. Based on the graph, the proposed graph structure based multi-label prediction (GSMLP) method predicts multi-labels by considering the pairwise similarity and the adjacency node distribution of each node. The multi-labels created by GSMLP are applied to the proposed selective multi-label classification (SMLC) loss. SMLC integrates a hard-sample mining scheme and a multi-label classification. The proposed GSMLP and SMLC boost the performance of unsupervised person Re-ID without any pre-labelled dataset. Experimental results justify the superiority of the proposed method in unsupervised person Re-ID by producing state-of-the-art performance. The source code for this paper is publicly available on 'https://github.com/uknownpioneer/GSMLP-SMLC.git'.